Reverse transcriptase (RT) is an enzyme used to generate complementary DNA (cDNA) from an RNA template, a process termed reverse transcription. RT is needed for the replication of retroviruses (e.g. HIV), and RT inhibitors are widely used as antiretroviral drugs. RT activity is also associated with the replication of chromosome ends (telomerase) and some mobile genetic elements (retrotransposons).
Retroviral RT has three sequential biochemical activities-- (a) RNA-dependent DNA polymerase, (b) ribonuclease H, and (c) DNA-dependent DNA polymerase. These activities are used by the retrovirus to convert single-stranded genomic RNA into double-stranded cDNA which can integrate into the host genome, potentially generating a long-term infection that can be very difficult to eradicate. The same sequence of reactions is widely used in the laboratory to convert RNA to DNA for use in molecular cloning, RNA sequencing, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or genome analysis.
Well studied reverse transcriptases include:
- HIV-1 reverse transcriptase from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (PDB 1HMV)
- M-MLV reverse transcriptase from the Moloney murine leukemia virus
- AMV reverse transcriptase from the avian myeloblastosis virus
- Telomerase reverse transcriptase that maintains the telomeres of eukaryotic chromosomes
Other articles related to "reverse, reverse transcriptase, reverse transcriptases":
... In 1965, Howard Temin described the first retrovirus a virus whose RNA genome was reverse transcribed into complementary DNA (cDNA), then integrated into the host's genome and expressed from ... The viral enzyme reverse transcriptase, which along with integrase is a distinguishing trait of retroviruses, was first described in 1970, independently by Howard Temin and David ... Later it was found that reverse transcriptase is not specific to retroviruses retrotransposons which code for reverse transcriptase are abundant in the genomes of ...
... Kiessling is noted for her discovery of reverse transcriptase activity in normal human cells (Kiessling Goulian) ... Prior to this discovery, it had been assumed that reverse transcriptase was an enzyme found only in retroviruses(such as HIV) ... To understand the normal biologic role of reverse transcriptase, Kiessling began to study eggs and early cleaving embryos ...
... Synthesis of DNA by a retron-encoded reverse transcriptase (RT) results in a DNA-RNA chimera which is composed of small single-stranded DNA linked to ... by the msr gene, while the product of the ret gene is a reverse transcriptase similar to the RTs produced by retroviruses and other types of retroelements ... Like other reverse transcriptases, the retron RT contains seven regions of conserved amino acids (labeled 1-7 in the figure), including a highly conserved tyr-ala-asp-asp (YADD ...
... For more details on this topic, see Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction ... Reverse transcriptase is commonly used in research to apply the polymerase chain reaction technique to RNA in a technique called reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) ... The classical PCR technique can be applied only to DNA strands, but, with the help of reverse transcriptase, RNA can be transcribed into DNA, thus making PCR analysis of RNA molecules possible ...
... to the cell is mediated by an enzyme called reverse transcriptase (or, more precisely, RNA-dependent DNA polymerase), which replicates the viral genome (in this case made of RNA) into DNA, which is later ... it is well-known that in the 1980s and 1990s, an understanding of reverse transcriptase and of the origins, nature, and properties of human ...
Famous quotes containing the word reverse:
“They shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruninghooks: nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any more.”
—Bible: Hebrew Isaiah, 2:4.
The words reappear in Micah 4:3, and the reverse injunction is made in Joel 3:10 (Beat your plowshares into swords ...)