Retinoic Acid

Retinoic acid is a metabolite of vitamin A (retinol) that mediates the functions of vitamin A required for growth and development. Retinoic acid is required in chordate animals, which includes all higher animals from fish to humans. During early embryonic development, retinoic acid generated in a specific region of the embryo helps determine position along the embryonic anterior/posterior axis by serving as an intercellular signaling molecule that guides development of the posterior portion of the embryo. It acts through Hox genes, which ultimately control anterior/posterior patterning in early developmental stages.

The key role of retinoic acid in embryonic development mediates the high teratogenicity of retinoid pharmaceuticals, such as isotretinoin used for treatment of cancer and acne. Oral megadoses of pre-formed vitamin A (retinyl palmitate), and retinoic acid itself, also have teratogenic potential by this same mechanism.

Read more about Retinoic AcidMechanism of Biological Action, Biosynthesis, Retinoic Acid Function in The Absence of Precursors Retinol or Retinaldehyde, Related Pharmaceuticals

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Meiome - Meiosis in Mammals
... It is retinoic acid, derived from the primitive kidney (mesonephros) that stimulates meiosis in ovarian oogonia ... Tissues of the male testis suppress meiosis by degrading retinoic acid, a stimulator of meiosis ... seminiferous tubules called Sertoli cells start making their own retinoic acid ...
CERK - Gene
... In human CERK, a retinoic acid response element (RARE)-like exists between -40bp and -28bp and contains the sequence TCCCCG C CGCCCG ... It is suspected that in the presence of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor I (COUP-TFI), retinoic acid receptor (RARĪ±), retinoid X receptor (RXR ...
... Talarozole inhibits the metabolism of retinoic acid by blocking the cytochrome P450 enzyme isoform CYP26, a retinoic acid hydroxylase ... Because of this mechanism, it is called a retinoic acid metabolism blocking agent (RAMBA) ...