A reducing agent (also called a reductant or reducer) is the element or compound in a reduction-oxidation (redox) reaction that donates an electron to another species; however, since the reducer loses an electron we say it is "oxidized". This means that there must be an "oxidizer"; because if any chemical is an electron donor (reducer), another must be an electron recipient (oxidizer). Thus reducers are "oxidized" by oxidizers and oxidizers are "reduced" by reducers; reducers are by themselves reduced (have more electrons) and oxidizers are by themselves oxidized (have less electrons). For example, consider the following reaction:
- 2 4− + Cl2 → 2 3− + 2 Cl−
The reducing agent in this reaction is ferrocyanide (4-). It donates an electron, becoming oxidized to ferricyanide (3-). Simultaneously, the oxidizer chlorine is reduced to chloride.
In organic chemistry, reduction more specifically refers to the addition of hydrogen to a molecule, though the aforementioned definition still applies. For example, benzene is reduced to cyclohexane in the presence of a platinum catalyst:
- C6H6 + 3 H2 → C6H12
In organic chemistry, good reducing agents are reagents that deliver H2.
Read more about Reducing Agent: Characteristics of Reducing Agents, Importance of Reducing and Oxidizing Agents, Example of Redox Reaction, Common Reducing Agents, Several Common Reducing Agents and Their Products
... Agent Product Hydrogen H+, H2O NADH NAD+ Metals metal ions Hydrocarbons CO2 carbon dioxide, H2O ...
... DTT is an unusually strong reducing agent, because once oxidized, it forms a stable six-membered ring with an internal disulfide bond ... The reducing power of DTT is limited to pH values above 7, since only the negatively charged thiolate form -S– is reactive (the protonated thiol form -SH is not) the pKa of the thiol groups is 9.2 ...
... A variety of reducing agents are employed, including copper, aluminum, hydrogen, as well as metal alkyls such as triethylaluminum ... chloride in benzene with aluminum as a reducing agent, and aluminum chloride as the catalyst CrCl3 + Al + 6 CO → Cr(CO)6 + AlCl3 The use of metal alkyls, e.g ... triethylaluminium and diethylzinc as the reducing agent leads to the oxidative coupling of the alkyl radical to the dimer WCl6 + 6 CO + 2 Al(C2H5)3 → W(CO)6 + 2 AlCl3 ...
... This fact indicates that aluminum can be used as the reducing agent for oxides of all these metals ... Gibb's free energy is negative, aluminium acts as the reducing agent ... In pyrometallurgy, Al is used as a reducing agent in the alumino-thermic process or thermite process to extract Cr and Mn by reduction of their oxides ...
... TCEP is often used as a reducing agent to break disulfide bonds within and between proteins as a preparatory step for gel electrophoresis ... Compared to the other two most common agents used for this purpose (dithiothreitol and β-mercaptoethanol), TCEP has the advantages of being odorless, a more powerful reducing agent, an irreversible ...
Famous quotes containing the words agent and/or reducing:
“The agent never receipts his bill, puts his hat on and bows himself out. He stays around forever, not only for as long as you can write anything that anyone will buy, but as long as anyone will buy any portion of any right to anything that you ever did write. He just takes ten per cent of your life.”
—Raymond Chandler (18881959)
“It is the American vice, the democratic disease which expresses its tyranny by reducing everything unique to the level of the herd.”
—Henry Miller (18911980)