In climate science, **radiative forcing** is generally defined as the change in net irradiance between different layers of the atmosphere. Typically, radiative forcing is quantified at the tropopause in units of watts per square meter. A positive forcing (more incoming energy) tends to warm the system, while a negative forcing (more outgoing energy) tends to cool it. Sources of radiative forcing include changes in insolation (incident solar radiation) and in concentrations of radiatively active gases and aerosols.

Read more about Radiative Forcing: Radiation Balance, IPCC Usage, Climate Sensitivity, Related Measures

### Other articles related to "radiative forcing, radiative, forcing":

... See also

**Radiative forcing**The model will find the values of Ts and Ta that will allow the outgoing

**radiative**power, escaping the top of the atmosphere, to be equal to the absorbed

**radiative**... The surface emits a

**radiative**flux density F according to the Stefan-Boltzmann law where σ is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant ... The

**radiative forcing**for doubling carbon dioxide is 3.71 W m−2, in a simple parameterization ...

_{2}

... they cool or warm the Earth, are often described in terms of the

**radiative forcing**or imbalance they introduce to the planet's energy budget ... is believed to be the major component of this

**forcing**, and the contribution of other components is often quantified in terms of "parts-per-million CO2-equivalent" (ppm ... positive and negative, are believed to roughly cancel out, so that the net

**radiative forcing**being experienced at present, expressed in ppm CO2-e, is more or less the same as the ...

... CO2 that would cause the same level of

**radiative forcing**as a given type and concentration of greenhouse gas ... CO2e calculation example The

**radiative forcing**for pure CO2 is approximated by where C is the present concentration, is a constant, 5.35 and the pre-industrial concentration, 278 ppm ... Hence the value of CO2e for an arbitrary gas mixture with a known

**radiative forcing**is given by in ppmv ...

**Radiative Forcing**- Related Measures

...

**Radiative forcing**is intended as a useful way to compare different causes of perturbations in a climate system ... that for changes in absorbing aerosols and ozone, the predictive ability of

**radiative forcing**is much worse.. ... alternative, the 'adjusted troposphere and stratosphere

**forcing**' ...

... the temperature of the climate system is to a change in the

**radiative forcing**... is usually used in the context of

**radiative forcing**by carbon dioxide, it is thought of as a general property of the climate system the change in surface air temperature (ΔTs) following ... For this to be useful, the measure must be independent of the nature of the

**forcing**(e.g ...

### Famous quotes containing the word forcing:

“no arranged terror: no *forcing* of image, plan,

or thought:

no propaganda, no humbling of reality to precept:

terror pervades but is not arranged, all possibilities

of escape open: no route shut,”

—Archie Randolph Ammons (b. 1926)