Printing Press

A printing press is a device for evenly printing ink onto a print medium (substrate) such as paper or cloth. The device applies pressure to a print medium that rests on an inked surface made of moveable type, thereby transferring the ink. Typically used for texts, the invention and spread of the printing press are widely regarded as among the most influential events in the second millennium revolutionizing the way people conceive and describe the world they live in, and ushering in the period of modernity.

The printing press was invented in the Holy Roman Empire by the German Johannes Gutenberg around 1440, based on existing screw presses. Gutenberg, a goldsmith by profession, developed a printing system by both adapting existing technologies and making inventions of his own. His newly devised hand mould made possible the rapid creation of metal movable type in large quantities. The printing press displaced earlier methods of printing and led to the first assembly line-style mass production of books. A single Renaissance printing press could produce 3,600 pages per workday, compared to forty by typographic hand-printing and a few by hand-copying. Books of bestselling authors like Luther or Erasmus were sold by the hundreds of thousands in their lifetime.

Printing soon spread from Mainz, Germany to over two hundred cities in a dozen European countries. By 1500, printing presses in operation throughout Western Europe had already produced more than twenty million volumes. In the 16th century, with presses spreading further afield, their output rose tenfold to an estimated 150 to 200 million copies. The operation of a press became so synonymous with the enterprise of printing that it lent its name to a new branch of media, the press. In 1620, the English philosopher Francis Bacon wrote of printing as one of the three things that "changed the whole face and state of things throughout the world".

In Renaissance Europe, the arrival of mechanical movable type printing introduced the era of mass communication which permanently altered the structure of society. The relatively unrestricted circulation of information and (revolutionary) ideas transcended borders, captured the masses in the Reformation and threatened the power of political and religious authorities; the sharp increase in literacy broke the monopoly of the literate elite on education and learning and bolstered the emerging middle class. Across Europe, the increasing cultural self-awareness of its peoples led to the rise of proto-nationalism, accelerated by the flowering of the European vernacular languages to the detriment of Latin's status as lingua franca. In the 19th century, the replacement of the hand-operated Gutenberg-style press by steam-powered rotary presses allowed printing on an industrial scale, while Western-style printing was adopted all over the world, becoming practically the sole medium for modern bulk printing.

Read more about Printing PressHistory, How A Printing Press Works, Gutenberg's Press, The Printing Revolution, Book Printing As Art Form, Industrial Printing Presses, Printing Capacity

Other articles related to "printing press, printing, press":

Late Manuscript Culture - Popular Assumptions and Historical Revision
... that (specifically medieval manuscript culture) existed during the rise of the printing press ... Eisenstein argued that the invention of the printing press eventually led to the Renaissance, and the social conditions necessary for its occurrence ... The printing press allowed readers to free themselves from many limitations of the manuscript ...
List Of People From Gujar Khan - Printing Press
... Mahmood Printing Press, Iqbal Market Railway Road, Gujar Khan ... Ph 051-3515649 ...
Media Of Egypt - History of The Printing Press
... French Campaign in Egypt and Syria The printing press was first introduced to Egypt by Napoleon Bonaparte during his French Campaign in Egypt and Syria ... He brought with his expedition a French, Arabic, and Greek printing press, which were far superior in speed, efficiency and quality than the nearest presses used in Istanbul ... the Middle East, Africa, India, and even much of Eastern Europe and Russia, printing was a minor, specialized activity until at least the 18th century ...
Swadeshabhimani (newspaper) - History
... He managed to import, directly from England, an automatic flatbed printing press, the latest type then available ... The press operated from Anjuthengu (Anglican Anjengo), a British colony at the time directly ruled by British East India Company ... Vakkom in Chirayinkil Taluk where the newspaper office and the printing press were located ...
Printing Press - Printing Capacity
... table lists the maximum number of pages which the various press designs could print per hour Hand-operated presses Steam-powered presses Gutenberg-style Stanhope ...

Famous quotes related to printing press:

    The printing press was at first mistaken for an engine of immortality by everybody except Shakespeare.
    Marshall McLuhan (1911–1980)