Open Hearth Furnace
Open hearth furnaces are one of a number of kinds of furnace where excess carbon and other impurities are burnt out of pig iron to produce steel. Since steel is difficult to manufacture owing to its high melting point, normal fuels and furnaces were insufficient and the open hearth furnace was developed to overcome this difficulty.
In 1865, the French engineer Pierre-Émile Martin took out a license from Siemens and first applied his regenerative furnace for making steel. Their process was known as the Siemens-Martin process, and the furnace as an "open-hearth" furnace. Most open hearth furnaces were closed by the early 1990s, not least because of their slow operation, being replaced by the basic oxygen furnace or electric arc furnace.
While arguably the first primitive open hearth furnace was the Catalan forge, invented in Spain in the eighth century, but it is usual to confine the term to certain nineteenth century and later steelmaking processes, thus excluding bloomeries (including the Catalan forge), finery forges, and puddling furnaces from its application.
Other articles related to "open hearth, open hearth furnaces, open hearth furnace, hearth, furnace":
... it became necessary for the Sharon Steel Hoop Company to produce its own open hearth steel ... Steel Hoop” inaugurated a building program which included four 35-ton open hearth furnaces, a blooming mill, and a bar mill on which billets would be rolled to be converted into bands on the 8 ... In 1905, a fifth open hearth furnace was added, and a 10” hot strip mill was brought into production, In 1906, the company built and operated the first continuous pickling and galvanizing unit ever ...
... Hearth, Patio Barbecue Association (HPBA) is a U.S ... trade organization that represents hearth appliance manufacturers, designers and retailers ... at federal and state levels, and provides data on sales and manufacturing output for the hearth industry ...
... on Venus are called rupes and are named after goddesses of the hearth ... Name origin Fornax Rupes 30.3N 201.1E 729.0 1985 Roman goddess of hearth and baking of bread. 109.9E 350.0 1985 Lithuanian goddess of fire and hearth ...
... Sir Carl Wilhelm Siemens developed the Siemens regenerative furnace in the 1850s, and claimed in 1857 to be recovering enough heat to save 70–80% of ... This furnace operates at a high temperature by using regenerative preheating of fuel and air for combustion ... In regenerative preheating, the exhaust gases from the furnace are pumped into a chamber containing bricks, where heat is transferred from the gases to the bricks ...
... The book divides architecture into four distinct elements the hearth, the roof, the enclosure and the mound ... The origins of each element can be found in the traditional crafts of ancient "barbarians" hearth – fire, ceramics roof – carpentry enclosure – weaving mound – stonemasonry Semper, stating that ...
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