London Clay

London Clay

The London Clay Formation is a marine geological formation of Ypresian (Lower Eocene Epoch, c. 56-49 Ma) age which crops out in the southeast of England. The London Clay is well known for the fossils it contains. The fossils from the Lower Eocene indicate a moderately warm climate, the flora being tropical or subtropical. Though sea levels changed during the deposition of the Clay, the habitat was generally a lush forest - perhaps like in Indonesia or East Africa today - bordering a warm, shallow ocean.

The London Clay is a stiff bluish clay which becomes brown when weathered. There are nodular lumps of pyrite and crystals of selenite (sometimes called "waterstones") frequently in the clay, and large septarian concretions are also common. These have been used in the past for making cement. They were once dug for this purpose at Sheppey, near Sittingbourne, and at Harwich, and also dredged off the Hampshire coast. The clay has been used commercially for making bricks, tiles, and coarse pottery. It is infertile for gardens and crops.

Read more about London ClayDistribution, Formation, Tunnels in London Clay, Claygate Beds, Fossil Fauna and Flora, Engineering, Agriculture

Other articles related to "london clay, clay, clays":

Dasornis - Systematics and Taxonomy
... humerus shaft, was found in the Ypresian (Early Eocene) London Clay of the Isle of Sheppey (England) ... the beak) was discovered, once again in the Isle of Sheppey London Clay ... He determined that all the large seabird bones from the London Clay bones belonged to a single species of pelagornithid ...
London Clay - Agriculture
... "London clay is not hospitable to most plants.. ... ploughing it up where it lies so near the surface as to be accessible to the plough is injurious to the surface soil and future crops ...
Hampshire Basin - Geology
... over an eroded surface, which ranges from Great Oolite (Early Jurassic Bathonian) to Weald Clay (mid-Cretaceous Hauterivian) in age ... The oldest beds, the Lambeth Group ('Reading Beds') and Thames Group ('London Clay') outcrop in narrow bands towards the perimeter of the basin, from the coast at ... chalk ridge of Portsdown Hill within the younger sediments the London Clay to the north contains the Forest of Bere ...
Burghfield - Geography - Geology
... The parish lies in an area of clay, gravel and sand which was laid down in shallow, marine, coastal and fluvial river environments ... overlain by reddish-brown Reading Formation clays ... Named after the Reading area, these largely fossil-poor clay outcrops in a narrow strip between the Chalk and the overlying London Clay ...

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    George Gordon Noel Byron (1788–1824)

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    Vernon Harris (c. 1910)