X-rayFurther information: X-ray astronomy
X-ray telescopes measure high-energy photons called X-rays. These can not travel a long distance through the atmosphere, meaning that they can only be observed high in the atmosphere or in space. Several types of astrophysical objects emit X-rays, from galaxy clusters, through black holes in active galactic nuclei to galactic objects such as supernova remnants, stars, and binary stars containing a white dwarf (cataclysmic variable stars), neutron star or black hole (X-ray binaries). Some solar system bodies emit X-rays, the most notable being the Moon, although most of the X-ray brightness of the Moon arises from reflected solar X-rays. A combination of many unresolved X-ray sources is thought to produce the observed X-ray background.
The Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics
An artist's impression of BeppoSAX
The Einstein Observatory (HEAO 2)
|Name||Space Agency||Launch Date||Terminated||Location||Ref(s)|
|1st High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO 1)||NASA||12 August 1977||9 January 1979||Earth orbit (445 km)|
|3rd High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO 3)||NASA||20 September 1979||29 May 1981||Earth orbit (486.4–504.9 km)|
|A Broadband Imaging X-ray All-sky Survey (ABRIXAS)||DLR||28 April 1999||1 July 1999||Earth orbit (549–598 km)|
|Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA)||ISAS & NASA||20 February 1993||2 March 2001||Earth orbit (523.6–615.3 km)|
|AGILE||ISA||23 April 2007||—||Earth orbit (524–553 km)|
|Ariel V||SRC & NASA||15 October 1974||14 March 1980||Earth orbit (520 km)|
|Array of Low Energy X-ray Imaging Sensors (Alexis)||LANL||25 April 1993||2005||Earth orbit (749–844 km)|
|Aryabhata||ISRO||19 April 1975||23 April 1975||Earth orbit (563–619 km)|
|Astron||IKI||23 March 1983||June 1989||Earth orbit (2,000—200,000 km)|
|Astronomical Netherlands Satellite (ANS)||SRON||30 August 1974||June 1976||Earth orbit (266–1176 km)|
|BeppoSAX||ASI||30 April 1996||30 April 2002||Earth orbit (575–594 km)|
|Broad Band X-ray Telescope / Astro 1||NASA||2 December 1990||11 December 1990||Earth orbit (500 km)|
|Chandra X-ray Observatory||NASA||23 July 1999||—||Earth orbit (9,942–140,000 km)|
|Cos-B||ESA||9 August 1975||25 April 1982||Earth orbit (339.6–99,876 km)|
|Cosmic Radiation Satellite (CORSA)||ISAS||6 February 1976||6 February 1976||Failed launch|
|Einstein Observatory (HEAO 2)||NASA||13 November 1978||26 April 1981||Earth orbit (465–476 km)|
|EXOSAT||ESA||26 May 1983||8 April 1986||Earth orbit (347–191,709 km)|
|Ginga (Astro-C)||ISAS||5 February 1987||1 November 1991||Earth orbit (517–708 km)|
|Granat||CNRS & IKI||1 December 1989||25 May 1999||Earth orbit (2,000–200,000 km)|
|Hakucho||ISAS||21 February 1979||16 April 1985||Earth orbit (421–433 km)|
|High Energy Transient Explorer 2 (HETE 2)||NASA||9 October 2000||—||Earth orbit (590–650 km)|
|International Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL)||ESA||17 October 2002||—||Earth orbit (639–153,000 km)|
|Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR)||NASA||13 June 2012||—||Earth orbit (603.5 km)|
|ROSAT||NASA & DLR||1 June 1990||12 February 1999||Re-entry 23 October 2011.
Formerly Earth orbit (580 km)
|Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE)||NASA||30 December 1995||3 January 2012||Earth orbit (409 km)|
|Suzaku (ASTRO-E2)||JAXA & NASA||10 July 2005||—||Earth orbit (550 km)|
|Swift Gamma Ray Burst Explorer||NASA||20 November 2004||—||Earth orbit (585–604 km)|
|Tenma||ISAS||20 February 1983||19 January 1989||Earth orbit (489–503 km)|
|Third Small Astronomy Satellite (SAS-C)||NASA||7 May 1975||April 1979||Earth orbit (509–516 km)|
|Uhuru||NASA||12 December 1970||March 1973||Earth orbit (531–572 km)|
|XMM-Newton||ESA||10 December 1999||—||Earth orbit (7,365–114,000 km)|
Read more about this topic: List Of Space Telescopes
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