List of People Considered Father or Mother of A Scientific Field - Natural Sciences - Physics and Astronomy

Physics and Astronomy

Subject Father/mother of … Reason
Acoustics Ernst Chladni For important research in vibrating plates
Aerodynamics Nikolai Zhukovsky
George Cayley
Zhukovsky was the first to undertake the study of airflow, was the first engineer scientist to explain mathematically the origin of aerodynamic lift. Cayley Investigated theoretical aspects of flight and experimented with flight a century before the first airplane was built
Classical mechanics Isaac Newton (founder) Described laws of motion and law of gravity in Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687)
Electricity William Gilbert
Michael Faraday
Thomas Edison
Nikola Tesla
Book: De Magnete (1600)
Discovered electromagnetic induction (1831)
Proposed a kite experiment to prove that lightning is electricity (1750)
Invented many electrical devices, such as the carbon microphone
Invented alternating current and many other electrical devices
Electrodynamics André-Marie Ampère Book: Memoir on the Mathematical Theory of Electrodynamic Phenomena, Uniquely Deduced from Experience (1827)
Energetics Willard Gibbs Publication: On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances (1876)
Experimental physics (founder) Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) For introducing experimental method into physics with his Book of Optics (1021)
Modern astronomy Nicolaus Copernicus Developed the first explicit heliocentric model in De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (1543)
Modern physics Galileo Galilei His development and extensive use of experimental physics, e.g. the telescope
Nuclear physics Ernest Rutherford Developed the Rutherford atom model (1909)
Nuclear science Marie Curie
Pierre Curie
Optics Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) Correctly explained vision and carried out the first experiments on light and optics in the Book of Optics (1021).
Quantum mechanics Max Planck (founder) Stated that electromagnetic energy could be emitted only in quantized form
Relativity Albert Einstein (founder) Pioneered special relativity (1905) and general relativity (1915)
Spaceflight (rocketry) Robert Hutchings Goddard
Konstantin Tsiolkovsky
Hermann Oberth
Goddard launched the first liquid-fueled rocket.
Tsiolkovsky created the Tsiolkovsky rocket equation.
Thermodynamics Sadi Carnot (founder) Publication: On the Motive Power of Fire and Machines Fitted to Develop that Power (1824)

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Famous quotes containing the words astronomy and/or physics:

    Awareness of the stars and their light pervades the Koran, which reflects the brightness of the heavenly bodies in many verses. The blossoming of mathematics and astronomy was a natural consequence of this awareness. Understanding the cosmos and the movements of the stars means understanding the marvels created by Allah. There would be no persecuted Galileo in Islam, because Islam, unlike Christianity, did not force people to believe in a “fixed” heaven.
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    The pace of science forces the pace of technique. Theoretical physics forces atomic energy on us; the successful production of the fission bomb forces upon us the manufacture of the hydrogen bomb. We do not choose our problems, we do not choose our products; we are pushed, we are forced—by what? By a system which has no purpose and goal transcending it, and which makes man its appendix.
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