The **Ising model** (/ˈaɪsɪŋ/; ), named after the physicist Ernst Ising, is a mathematical model of ferromagnetism in statistical mechanics. The model consists of discrete variables that represent magnetic dipole moments of atomic *spins* that can be in one of two states (+1 or −1). The spins are arranged in a graph, usually, a lattice, allowing each spin to interact with its neighbors. The model allows the identification of phase transitions, as a simplified model of reality. The two-dimensional square-lattice Ising model is one of the simplest statistical models to show a phase transition.

The Ising model was invented by the physicist Wilhelm Lenz (1920), who gave it as a problem to his student Ernst Ising. The one-dimensional Ising model has no phase transition and was solved by Ising (1925) himself in his 1924 thesis. The two-dimensional square lattice Ising model is much harder, and was given an analytic description much later, by Lars Onsager (1944). It is usually solved by a transfer-matrix method, although there exist different approaches, more related to quantum field theory.

In dimensions greater than four, the phase transition of the Ising model is described by mean field theory.

Read more about Ising Model: Definition, Basic Properties and History, Historical Significance, One Dimension, Two Dimensions, Three and Four Dimensions, More Than Four Dimensions

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