History Of Mining
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, or reef, which forms the mineralized package of economic interest to the miner.
To gain access to the mineralised package within an area it is often necessary to mine through or to remove waste material which is not of immediate interest to the miner. The total movement of ore and waste constitute the mining process. Often more waste than ore is mined during the life of a mine, depending on the nature and location of the orebody. Waste removal and placement is a major cost to the mining operator, so detailed characterization of the waste material forms an essential part of the geological exploration programme for a mining operation.
The waste is classified as either sterile or mineralised, with acid generating potential, and the movement and storage of this material forms a major part of the mine planning process. When the mineralised package is determined by an economic cut-off, the near-grade mineralised waste is usually dumped separately with view to later treatment should market conditions change and it becomes economic viable. Civil engineering design parameters are used in the design of the waste dumps, and special conditions apply to high-rainfall areas and to seismically active areas. Waste dump designs must meet all regulatory requirements of the country in whose jurisdiction the mine is located. It is also common practice to rehabilitate dumps to an internationally acceptable standard, which in some cases means that higher standards than the local regulatory standard are applied.
Ores recovered by mining include metals, coal and oil shale, gemstones, limestone, and dimension stone, rock salt and potash, gravel, and clay. Mining is required to obtain any material that cannot be grown through agricultural processes, or created artificially in a laboratory or factory. Mining in a wider sense includes extraction of any non-renewable resource such as petroleum, natural gas, or even water.
Mining of stone and metal has been done since pre-historic times. Modern mining processes involve prospecting for ore bodies, analysis of the profit potential of a proposed mine, extraction of the desired materials, and final reclamation of the land after the mine is closed.
The nature of mining processes creates a potential negative impact on the environment both during the mining operations and for years after the mine is closed. This impact has led to most of the world's nations adopting regulations to moderate the negative effects of mining operations. Safety has long been a concern as well, and modern practices have improved safety in mines significantly.
Read more about History Of Mining: Environmental Effects, Regulations and World Bank Relationship, Governance, New Regulation and Development, Mining Industry, Safety, Records, Metal Reserves and Recycling
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... The result is that metal mining activities are expanding, and more and more of the world’s metal stocks are above ground in use, rather than below ground as unused ... in principle, can be used over and over again, minimizing the negative environmental impacts of mining and saving energy at the same time ...
... The first documented case of mining in this area dates from the 14th century ... resulting in poverty and misery in the mining areas ... slate imports from Spain, Portugal, Argentina and China caused the abandonment of local mining ...
... The men who lost their lives in the disaster were Wilfred John (17) Willie Goulding (22) Charles Evans (30) Archie Davis (28) Phil Godbeer (32) The mine would never recover from the disaster, and was to close later that year in 1925. ...
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