Gwageo

The gwageo (or kwago) were the national civil service examinations under the Goryeo and Joseon dynasties of Korea. Typically quite demanding, these tests measured candidates' knowledge of the Chinese classics, and sometimes also of technical subjects. These were the primary route for most people to achieve positions in the aristocracy.

Based on the civil service examinations of imperial China, the gwageo first arose in Unified Silla, gained importance in Goryeo, and were the centerpiece of most education in the Joseon Dynasty. The tutelage provided at the hyanggyo, seowon, and Seonggyungwan was aimed primarily at preparing students for the gwageo and their subsequent career in government service. Under Joseon law, high office was closed to those who were not children of officials of the second full rank or higher, unless the candidate had passed the gwageo. Those who passed the higher literary examination came to monopolize all of the dynasty's high positions of state.

Read more about Gwageo:  Silla, Goryeo, Joseon

Other articles related to "gwageo":

Government Of Korea - Government - Civil Service
... Joseon Dynasty, one had to take a series of gwageo literary examinations and pass each of them (usually four to five times) ... male other than cheonmin (lowest class) and children of concubines could take gwageo examinations to enter a civil service and thus become yangban (nobility class) ... of time and money as well as necessary connections to pass gwageo exams ...
Joseon - Society - Social and Population Structure
... that the status was based on a unique mixture of family position, gwageo examinations for Confucian learning, and a civil service system ... a government official was to pass a series of gwageo exams (One had to pass "lesser gwageo" exam (소과) in both of two stages to qualify for greater gwageo exam, which again one had to pass in ...
Education In The Joseon Dynasty - Civil Service Examinations
... The civil service examinations, known as gwageo, assessed subject's ability to interpret the Chinese classics, in terms of official Neo-Confucian ... The gwageo were divided into civil and military sections, with the military section being open to people of relatively lower rank ... The gwageo system had been set up in the Goryeo dynasty, but reached its peak in the Joseon period ...
Gwageo - Joseon - Historical Change
... The gwageo were supplemented in the reign of Jungjong of Joseon (1506-1544), at the suggestion of the high official Jo Gwang-jo ... The gwageo system became increasingly corrupt in the later years of the Joseon Dynasty ... The gwageo were finally abolished in the Gabo Reforms of 1894, along with legal class discrimination and the old rank system ...