**Goldstone Boson**

In particle and condensed matter physics, **Goldstone bosons** or **Nambu–Goldstone bosons** are bosons that appear necessarily in models exhibiting spontaneous breakdown of continuous symmetries. They were discovered by Yoichiro Nambu in the context of the BCS superconductivity mechanism, and subsequently elucidated by Jeffrey Goldstone, and systematically generalized in the context of quantum field theory.

These spinless bosons correspond to the spontaneously broken internal symmetry generators, and are characterized by the quantum numbers of these. They transform **nonlinearly** (shift) under the action of these generators, and can thus be excited out of the asymmetric vacuum by these generators. Thus, they can be thought of as the excitations of the field in the broken symmetry directions in group space—and are massless if the spontaneously broken symmetry is *not also broken explicitly*. If, instead, the symmetry is not exact, i.e., if it is *explicitly broken as well as spontaneously broken*, then the Nambu–Goldstone bosons are not massless, though they typically remain relatively light; they are then called **pseudo-Goldstone bosons** or **pseudo-Nambu–Goldstone bosons** (abbreviated *PNGBs*).

Read more about Goldstone Boson: Goldstone's Theorem, A Simple Example, Goldstone's Argument, Nonrelativistic Theories, Nambu–Goldstone Fermions, Goldstone Bosons in Nature

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