Fundamental Group - Universal Covering Space

Universal Covering Space

If X is a topological space that is path connected, locally path connected and locally simply connected, then it has a simply connected universal covering space on which the fundamental group π(X,x0) acts freely by deck transformations with quotient space X. This space can be constructed analogously to the fundamental group by taking pairs (x, γ), where x is a point in X and γ is a homotopy class of paths from x0 to x and the action of π(X, x0) is by concatenation of paths. It is uniquely determined as a covering space.

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