The Fourth Estate (or fourth estate) is a societal or political force or institution whose influence is not consistently or officially recognized. "Fourth Estate" most commonly refers to the news media; especially print journalism or "The Press". Thomas Carlyle attributed the origin of the term to Edmund Burke, who used it in a parliamentary debate in 1787 on the opening up of Press reporting of the House of Commons of Great Britain. Earlier writers have applied the term to lawyers, to the British queens consort (acting as a free agent, independent of the king), and to the proletariat. The term makes implicit reference to the earlier division of the three Estates of the Realm.
Other articles related to "fourth estate, estates, estate":
... In his novel The Fourth Estate Jeffrey Archer wrote "In May 1789, Louis XVI summoned to Versailles a full meeting of the 'Estates General' ... The First Estate consisted of three hundred clergy ... The Second Estate, three hundred nobles ...
... The Heretic's Feast – a History of Vegetarianism, 1993, Fourth Estate, ISBN 1-85702-078-2, ISBN 978-1-85702-078-6. 1994, Fourth Estate (paperback 2nd edition), ISBN 1-85702-250-5, ISBN 978-1-85702-250-6 ... Homosexuality – a History, 1995, Fourth Estate, ISBN 1-85702-143-6, ISBN 978-1-85702-143-1 ...
... The Fourth Estate is a 1996 novel by Jeffrey Archer ... The concept of the fourth estate is in essence the press as a watchdog on other powerful institutions or "estates", the original three estates in England and later the United Kingdom being the Lords Spiritual (of the ... The fourth estate is charged with keeping an honest watch on activities of the other states and itself ...
... Caryl Phillips Crossing the River Bloomsbury Carol Shields The Stone Diaries Fourth Estate 1994 James Kelman How late it was, how late Secker Warburg Professor John ... Warburg Madeleine St John The Essence of the Thing Fourth Estate 1998 Ian McEwan Amsterdam Jonathan Cape Douglas Hurd Professor Valentine Cunningham Penelope Fitzgerald Miriam Gross Nigella Lawson Beryl ... Wagner Rohinton Mistry Family Matters Faber Faber Carol Shields Unless Fourth Estate William Trevor The Story of Lucy Gault Viking Sarah Waters Fingersmith Virago Tim Winton Dirt Music Picador 2003 DBC ...
Famous quotes containing the words estate and/or fourth:
“The difference between de jure and de facto segregation is the difference open, forthright bigotry and the shamefaced kind that works through unwritten agreements between real estate dealers, school officials, and local politicians.”
—Shirley Chisholm (b. 1924)
“All night Ive held your hand,
as if you had
a fourth time faced the kingdom of the mad
its hackneyed speech, its homicidal eye
and dragged me home alive. . . .”
—Robert Lowell (19171977)