Ferromagnetic Materials

Ferromagnetic Materials

Ferromagnetism is the basic mechanism by which certain materials (such as iron) form permanent magnets, or are attracted to magnets. In physics, several different types of magnetism are distinguished. Ferromagnetism (including ferrimagnetism) is the strongest type; it is the only type that creates forces strong enough to be felt, and is responsible for the common phenomena of magnetism encountered in everyday life. Other substances respond weakly to magnetic fields with two other types of magnetism, paramagnetism and diamagnetism, but the forces are so weak that they can only be detected by sensitive instruments in a laboratory. An everyday example of ferromagnetism is a refrigerator magnet used to hold notes on a refrigerator door. The attraction between a magnet and ferromagnetic material is "the quality of magnetism first apparent to the ancient world, and to us today".

Permanent magnets (materials that can be magnetized by an external magnetic field and remain magnetized after the external field is removed) are either ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic, as are other materials that are noticeably attracted to them. Only a few substances are ferromagnetic. The common ones are iron, nickel, cobalt and most of their alloys, some compounds of rare earth metals, and a few naturally-occurring minerals such as lodestone.

Ferromagnetism is very important in industry and modern technology, and is the basis for many electrical and electromechanical devices such as electromagnets, electric motors, generators, transformers, and magnetic storage such as tape recorders, and hard disks.

Read more about Ferromagnetic Materials:  History and Distinction From Ferrimagnetism, Ferromagnetic Materials, Explanation

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... As the temperature increases, thermal motion, or entropy, competes with the ferromagnetic tendency for dipoles to align ... The study of ferromagnetic phase transitions, especially via the simplified Ising spin model, had an important impact on the development of statistical ...
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... magnḗtis líthos, "Magnesian stone") is a material or object that produces a magnetic field ... property of a magnet a force that pulls on other ferromagnetic materials, such as iron, and attracts or repels other magnets ... A permanent magnet is an object made from a material that is magnetized and creates its own persistent magnetic field ...

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