Elkhorn Coral - Threats


Elkhorn coral was once one of the most abundant species of coral in the Caribbean and the Florida Keys. Since 1980, an estimated 90-95% of elkhorn coral has been lost. Threats include disease, coral bleaching, predation, climate change, storm damage, and human activity. All of these factors have created a synergistic effect that greatly diminishes the survival and reproductive success of elkhorn coral. Natural recovery of coral is a slow process, and may never occur with this species because so many factors inhibit its survival.

Diseases that affect elkhorn coral include white pox disease, white band disease, and black band disease. White pox disease, which only affects elkhorn coral, is caused by a fecal enterobacterium, Serratia marcescens. The disease is very contagious and commonly moves from one colony to its nearest neighbor. White pox creates white lesions on the coral skeleton and results in an average tissue loss of 2.5 cm2 (0.39 sq in) per day, but can cause as much tissue loss as 10.5 cm2 (1.63 sq in) per day. White band disease and black band disease have also greatly reduced the abundance of elkhorn coral. Diseases are one of the major causes of coral mortality, however, they are not well studied or understood.

Predators of elkhorn coral include coral-eating snails (Coralliophila abbreviata), polychaetes such as the bearded fireworm, and damselfish. Predation by these organisms reduces the corals' growth and ability to reproduce. Predation can eventually lead to the death of the coral colony.

Read more about this topic:  Elkhorn Coral

Other articles related to "threats, threat":

SONAR (Symantec) - SONAR 4
... also introduces protection against Non Process Threats (NPTs) ... As the name suggests, these threats are not active processes by themselves, but they inject themselves into legitimate active processes ... SONAR 4.0 technology is able to much more aggressively remove threats on pre-infected machines." ...
SONAR (Symantec) - How It Works
... use of SONAR is to enhance detection of zero day threats ... management at Symantec, expressed confidence in SONAR, "We've done extensive testing on emerging threats, and it catches early threats and variants of existing threats." ...
MOSAIC Threat Assessment Systems
... MOSAIC Threat Assessment Systems (MOSAIC) is a method developed by Gavin de Becker Associates in the early 1980s to assess and screen threats and inappropriate communications ... of the Los Angeles Police Department Threat Management Unit, now a Managing Principal with Gavin de Becker Associates, heads up the MOSAIC Threat ... method is used by the Supreme Court Police to assess threats to the Justices, by the U.S ...
Béres Zoo - Threats and Lawsuits
... of local and international celebrities which gained him several threats ... There were several other threats that Béres briefly mentioned on-air but being a public figure he felt vulnerable to revenge and therefore never disclosed the details ...

Famous quotes containing the word threats:

    Do not extort money from anyone by threats or false accusation, and be satisfied with your wages.
    Bible: New Testament, Luke 3:14.

    John the Baptist to Soldiers.

    Southerners, whose ancestors a hundred years ago knew the horrors of a homeland devastated by war, are particularly determined that war shall never come to us again. All Americans understand the basic lessons of history: that we need to be resolute and able to protect ourselves, to prevent threats and domination by others.
    Jimmy Carter (James Earl Carter, Jr.)

    Among the best traitors Ireland has ever had, Mother Church ranks at the very top, a massive obstacle in the path to equality and freedom. She has been a force for conservatism, not on the basis of preserving Catholic doctrine or preventing the corruption of her children, but simply to ward off threats to her own security and influence.
    Bernadette Devlin (b. 1947)