Electric Charge

Electric charge is a physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when near other electrically charged matter. There exist two types of electric charges, called positive and negative. Positively-charged substances are repelled from other positively-charged substances, but attracted to negatively-charged substances; negatively-charged substances are repelled from negative and attracted to positive. An object will be negatively charged if it has an excess of electrons, and otherwise be positively charged or uncharged. The SI unit of electric charge is the coulomb (C), although in electrical engineering it is also common to use the ampere-hour (Ah), and in chemistry it is common to use the elementary charge (e) as a unit. The symbol Q is often used to denote a charge. The study of how charged substances interact is classical electrodynamics, which is accurate insofar as quantum effects can be ignored.

The electric charge is a fundamental conserved property of some subatomic particles, which determines their electromagnetic interaction. Electrically charged matter is influenced by, and produces, electromagnetic fields. The interaction between a moving charge and an electromagnetic field is the source of the electromagnetic force, which is one of the four fundamental forces (See also: magnetic field).

Twentieth-century experiments demonstrated that electric charge is quantized; that is, it comes in multiples of individual small units called the elementary charge, e, approximately equal to 1.602×10−19 coulombs (except for particles called quarks, which have charges that are multiples of ⅓e). The proton has a charge of e, and the electron has a charge of −e. The study of charged particles, and how their interactions are mediated by photons, is quantum electrodynamics.

Read more about Electric Charge:  Overview, Units, History, Static Electricity and Electric Current, Properties, Conservation of Electric Charge

Other articles related to "electric charge, charge, electric":

Conservation of Electric Charge
... The total electric charge of an isolated system remains constant regardless of changes within the system itself ... The conservation of charge results in the charge-current continuity equation ... More generally, the net change in charge density within a volume of integration is equal to the area integral over the current density through the closed surface, which is in ...
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... ions with a positive electric charge) and CO32- (a carbonate anion, i.e ... an ion with a double negative electric charge) ... The ion H+ has a positive electric charge (+) and the hydroxyl group OH– has a negative charge (–) ...
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... explanation for why ordering of the subcomponents matters (giving rise to colour charge) whereas in the older Rishon Model, this feature must be treated as an ad hoc assumption ... This model leads to an interpretation of electric and colour charge as a topological quantities electric charge as the number of twists carried on the individual ribbons, and colour charge as the number of ... The first generation of fermions with correct charge and parity properties have been modelled using preons constituted of braids of spacetime as the building blocks ...
Charge Conservation
... In physics, charge conservation is the principle that electric charge can neither be created nor destroyed ... The net quantity of electric charge, the amount of positive charge minus the amount of negative charge in the universe, is always conserved ... Franklin, Letter to Cadwallader Colden, 5 June 1747 Charge conservation is a physical law that states that the change in the amount of electric charge in any ...

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