Research doctorates are awarded in recognition of academic research that is (at least in principle) publishable in a peer-refereed academic journal. In many countries, including the United States, earning a research doctorate also requires successful completion of a regimen of coursework beyond the masters level. The best-known degree of this type, in the Anglophone world, is that of Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D., or sometimes D.Phil) awarded in many countries throughout the world. Others include the degree of Doctor of Education, various doctorates in engineering, such as the US Doctor of Engineering (also awarded in Japan and South Korea), the UK Engineering Doctorate and the German Engineering Doctorate Doktor-Ingenieur and the German nature-science degree of Doctor rerum naturalium (Dr.rer.nat.). The Doctor of Theology, often stylized Th.D., is also a research doctorate, in theology, awarded by universities such as Harvard Divinity School and the University of Toronto among many others. Likewise, the Doctor of Sacred Theology is also a research doctorate in theology, but particular to Catholic Pontifical Universities and Faculties.
Criteria for award of research doctorates vary somewhat throughout the world, but typically requires the submission of a substantial body of original research undertaken by the candidate. This may take the form of a single thesis or dissertation, or possibly a portfolio of shorter project reports; see also Thesis by publication. The submission will usually be assessed by a small committee of examiners appointed by the university, and often an oral examination of some kind. In some countries (such as the US) there may also be a formal taught component, typically consisting of graduate-level courses in the subject in question, as well as training in research methodology.
The minimum time required to complete a research doctorate varies by country, and may be as short as three years (excluding undergraduate study), although it is not uncommon for a candidate to take up to six years to complete.
In the UK, an equivalent formation to doctorate is the QCF 8.
Other articles related to "research":
... conservative and liberal brain Following the Second World War, psychologists conducted research into the different motives and tendencies that account for ideological differences ... and methodological grounds, but some of its findings have been confirmed by further empirical research ... A meta-analysis of research literature by Jost, Glaser, Kruglanski, and Sulloway in 2003 found that many factors, such as intolerance of ambiguity and need for cognitive closure ...
... Their use in stem cell research, reproductive cloning, and germline engineering are currently being explored ... The morality of this type of research is debated because an embryo is often used ...
... student in the 1930s Seaborg performed wet chemistry research for his advisor Gilbert Newton Lewis and published three papers with him on the theory of acids ... had a major impact on his developing interests as a research scientist ... For several years, Seaborg conducted important research in artificial radioactivity using the Lawrence cyclotron at UC Berkeley ...
... trend of artistic teaching becoming more academics-oriented is leading to artistic research being accepted as the primary mode of enquiry in art as in the case of other disciplines ... One of the characteristics of artistic research is that it must accept subjectivity as opposed to the classical scientific methods ... As such, it is similar to the social sciences in using qualitative research and intersubjectivity as tools to apply measurement and critical analysis ...
Famous quotes containing the word research:
“Our science has become terrible, our research dangerous, our findings deadly. We physicists have to make peace with reality. Reality is not as strong as we are. We will ruin reality.”
—Friedrich Dürrenmatt (19211990)
“Men talk, but rarely about anything personal. Recent research on friendship ... has shown that male relationships are based on shared activities: men tend to do things together rather than simply be together.... Female friendships, particularly close friendships, are usually based on self-disclosure, or on talking about intimate aspects of their lives.”
—Bettina Arndt (20th century)
“If politics is the art of the possible, research is surely the art of the soluble. Both are immensely practical-minded affairs.”
—Peter B. Medawar (19151987)