Crawford Lake Conservation Area is a conservation area owned and operated by Conservation Halton near the community of Campbellville in Milton, Halton, Ontario, Canada. It is categorized as a regional environmentally sensitive area, an Ontario area of natural scientific interest, and part of the Niagara escarpment world biosphere reserve. The conservation area contains Crawford Lake, a meromictic lake, which makes the lake a prime site for archeological and geochemical studies. The site was first discovered in 1971 after a study of the sediment of Crawford Lake. Using pollen analysis, reconstruction of the history of the area over several hundred years was possible.
The lake was named after the Crawford family, who originally lived on the site. Their house remained there until a group of teenagers burned it down, all that survived was the front porch that was constructed of cement. Photographs of the original house and members of the Crawford family exist. The Crawford family also owned a cedar tree farm on the opposite side of the lake.
The pollen analysis revealed the agricultural history of the native Iroquois Indians and the presence of their village. The Wendat village has been reconstructed in the conservation area and is based on many years of work by archaeologists. Moreover, geochemical analysis of sediment cores has allowed for the reconstruction of the pollution history of the area. This analysis revealed the trends and sources of air pollution over approximately 150 years. The reconstructed fifteenth century Iroquoian village is open seasonally and for special events. The site offers interpretive programs of Iroquoian life and culture.
The conservation area also has 19 kilometres (12 mi) of hiking and cross-country skiing and snowshoeing trails with connections to Bruce Trail.
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