Most Notable Computer Assisted Surgery Systems
From 1989 to 2007, more than 200 CAS systems have been developed by different universities and research institutes, almost all remaining experimental devices. Currently, the most widely-used commercially-available systems approved for clinical use are StealthStation (Medtronic, USA), eNLight and NavSuite (Stryker Corporation, USA), VectorVision (Brainlab, Germany), DigiPointeur (Ste COLLIN, France), Navigation Panel Unit (Storz, Germany), Portable Nanostation (Praxim, France) and MATRIX POLAR (Scopis medical/ XION, Germany). All of these except DigiPointeur use an optical IR tracking system. DigiPointeur uses an electromagnetic tracking system. StealthStation uses both an electromagnetic (AxiEM) and an optical IR tracking system.
The first surgical robot was called Aesop (Computer Motion, USA); Aesop 1000 received the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval in 1993. It had multiple improvements and variants, such as Zeus or Hermes. The daVinci Surgical System was developed by Intuitive Surgical, derived from the Stanford Research Institute, USA. In 1997 it had received the FDA approval to assist the surgeon, and was the first Remote manipulator to have the FDA approval to perform stand-alone surgery, in 2000. It is a telesurgical system, mostly used for laparoscopic abdominal surgery. After harsh disputes and trials, the two producers merged, still under the brand name of Intuitive Surgical. Orthodoc and Robodoc are robots developed for assistance in orthopedic surgery, developed by Integrated Surgical Systems. The same company has produced Neuromate, to be used in conjunction with Orthodoc/Robodoc in neurosurgery. CyberKnife (Accuray Incorporated) is a robot that incorporates a linear accelerator, and is used since 2001 in radiosurgery.
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