**Chinese Mathematics**

**Mathematics in China** emerged independently by the 11th century BC. The Chinese independently developed very large and negative numbers, decimals, a place value decimal system, a binary system, algebra, geometry, and trigonometry. Knowledge of Chinese mathematics before 254 BC is somewhat fragmentary, and even after this date the manuscript traditions are obscure. Dates centuries before the classical period are generally considered conjectural by Chinese scholars unless accompanied by verified archaeological evidence, not just in mathematics, in a direct analogue with the As in other early societies the focus was on astronomy in order to perfect the agricultural calendar, and other practical tasks, and not on establishing formal systems. Axiomic proof was the strength of ancient Greek mathematician; ancient Chinese mathematicians excelled at place value decimal device computation, algorithm development and algebra, the weakness of their Greek counterparts. While mathematics declined in the west during the Dark Ages, the achievement of Chinese algebra reached its zenith in the 13th century, when Zhu Shijie invented method of four unknowns.

As a result of obvious linguistic and geographic barriers, as well as content, Chinese mathematics and that of the mathematics of the ancient Mediterranean world are presumed to have developed more or less independently up to the time when *The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art* reached its final form, while the *Writings on Reckoning* and *Huainanzi* are roughly contemporary with classical Greek mathematics. Some exchange of ideas across Asia through known cultural exchanges from at least Roman times is likely. Frequently, elements of the mathematics of early societies correspond to results found later in branches of modern mathematics such as geometry or number theory. The Pythagorean theorem for example, has been attested to the time of the Duke of Zhou. Knowledge of Pascal's triangle has also been shown to have existed in China centuries before Pascal, such as by Shen Kuo.

Read more about Chinese Mathematics: Early Chinese Mathematics, Qin Mathematics, Han Mathematics, Mathematics in The Period of Disunity, Tang Mathematics, Song and Yuan Mathematics, Later Developments, Mathematical Texts, Mathematics in Education

### Other articles related to "chinese mathematics, chinese, mathematics":

**Chinese Mathematics**

... Main article

**Chinese mathematics**Early

**Chinese mathematics**is so different from that of other parts of the world that it is reasonable to assume independent development ... Of particular note is the use in

**Chinese mathematics**of a decimal positional notation system, the so-called "rod numerals" in which distinct ciphers were used for numbers between 1 and 10, and additional ciphers for ... to be carried out on the suan pan, or

**Chinese**abacus ...

**Chinese Mathematics**- Mathematics in Education

... The first reference to a book being used in learning

**mathematics**in China is dated to the second century CE (Hou Hanshu 24, 862 35,1207) ... C.Cullen claims that

**mathematics**, in a manner akin to medicine, was taught orally ...

**Chinese Mathematics**

... table of sines were translated into the

**Chinese**mathematical book of the Kaiyuan Zhanjing, compiled in 718 AD during the Tang Dynasty ... Although the

**Chinese**excelled in other fields of

**mathematics**such as solid geometry, binomial theorem, and complex algebraic formulas, early forms of trigonometry were not as widely ... Instead, the early

**Chinese**used an empirical substitute known as chong cha, while practical use of plane trigonometry in using the sine, the tangent, and the ...

... Further information

**Chinese mathematics**and

**Chinese**geography There were many notable improvements to

**Chinese mathematics**during the Song era. 1238–1298) provided the earliest

**Chinese**illustration of Pascal's triangle, although it was described earlier around 1100 by Jia Xian. 1202–1261) was the first to introduce the zero symbol into

**Chinese mathematics**before this blank spaces were used instead of zeros in the system of counting rods ...

### Famous quotes containing the word mathematics:

“The three main medieval points of view regarding universals are designated by historians as realism, conceptualism, and nominalism. Essentially these same three doctrines reappear in twentieth-century surveys of the philosophy of *mathematics* under the new names logicism, intuitionism, and formalism.”

—Willard Van Orman Quine (b. 1908)