Caloris Basin

The Caloris Basin, also called Caloris Planitia, is a large impact crater on Mercury about 1,550 km (960 mi) in diameter, one of the largest impact basins in the solar system. Caloris is Latin for heat and the basin is so-named because the Sun is almost directly overhead every second time Mercury passes perihelion. The crater, discovered in 1974, is surrounded by a ring of mountains approximately 2 km (1.2 mi) tall.

Read more about Caloris BasinAppearance, Formation, Antipodal Chaotic Terrain and Global Effects, Emissions of Gas

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Geology Of Mercury - Surface Features - Impact Basins and Craters
... range in diameter from small bowl-shaped craters to multi-ringed impact basins hundreds of kilometers across ... The largest known crater is the enormous Caloris Basin, with a diameter of 1550 km, A basin of comparable size, tentatively named Skinakas Basin had been postulated from low ... The impact which created the Caloris Basin was so powerful that its effects are seen on a global scale ...
Caloris Group
... The Caloris group is a set of geologic units on Mercury ... Like the Imbrium and Orientale Basins on the Moon, Caloris Basin is surrounded by an extensive and well-preserved ejecta blanket As on the Moon, where ejecta from the better preserved basins was used to ... is recognizable to a distance of about one basin diameter in the Tolstoj quadrangle and the adjacent Shakespeare quadrangle to the north ...
Tolstoj Quadrangle - Stratigraphy - Basin Materials - Caloris Group
... The Caloris Basin is especially significant from a stratigraphic standpoint ... Like the Imbrium and Orientale Basins on the Moon, it is surrounded by an extensive and well-preserved ejecta blanket ... Moon, where ejecta from the better preserved basins was used to construct a stratigraphy, the ejecta from the Caloris Basin also can be used as a marker ...
Tolstoj Quadrangle - Stratigraphy - Younger Plains Materials
... The Caloris floor plains material is a special problem and is not included in the Caloris Group ... radial and circumferential ridges characteristic of the Maunder that led to its interpretation as a basin floor unit ... The Caloris floor plains have a more open, coarser fracture pattern than does the Maunder ...
Caloris Basin - Emissions of Gas
... The Caloris Basin has been found to be a significant source of sodium and potassium, indicating that the fractures created by the impact facilitate the release of gases from within the planet ...