Brouwer Fixed-point Theorem

Brouwer Fixed-point Theorem

Brouwer's fixed-point theorem is a fixed-point theorem in topology, named after Luitzen Brouwer. It states that for any continuous function f with certain properties mapping a compact convex set into itself there is a point x0 such that f(x0) = x0. The simplest form of Brouwer's theorem is for continuous functions f from a disk D to itself. A more general form is for continuous functions from a convex compact subset K of Euclidean space to itself.

Among hundreds of fixed-point theorems, Brouwer's is particularly well known, due in part to its use across numerous fields of mathematics. In its original field, this result is one of the key theorems characterizing the topology of Euclidean spaces, along with the Jordan curve theorem, the hairy ball theorem and the Borsuk–Ulam theorem. This gives it a place among the fundamental theorems of topology. The theorem is also used for proving deep results about differential equations and is covered in most introductory courses on differential geometry. It appears in unlikely fields such as game theory. In economics, Brouwer's fixed-point theorem and its extension, the Kakutani fixed-point theorem, play a central role in the proof of existence of general equilibrium in market economies as developed in the 1950s by economics Nobel prize winners Gérard Debreu and Kenneth Arrow.

The theorem was first studied in view of work on differential equations by the French mathematicians around Poincaré and Picard. Proving results such as the Poincaré–Bendixson theorem requires the use of topological methods. This work at the end of the 19th century opened into several successive versions of the theorem. The general case was first proved in 1910 by Jacques Hadamard and by Luitzen Egbertus Jan Brouwer.

Read more about Brouwer Fixed-point Theorem:  Statement, Illustrations, History, Generalizations

Other articles related to "theorems":

Brouwer Fixed-point Theorem - Generalizations
... The Brouwer fixed-point theorem forms the starting point of a number of more general fixed-point theorems ... The generalizations of the Brouwer fixed-point theorem to infinite dimensional spaces therefore all include a compactness assumption of some sort, and in addition also often an assumption of convexity ... See fixed-point theorems in infinite-dimensional spaces for a discussion of these theorems ...

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