Home range refers to the area in which an animal travels and spends most of its time. It is thought that male and female rats have similar sized home ranges during the winter, but male rats increase the size of their home range during the breeding season. Along with differing between rats of different gender, home range also differs depending on the type of forest in which the black rat inhabits. For example, home ranges in the southern beech forests of the South Island, New Zealand appear to be much larger than the non-beech forests of the North Island. Due to the limited number of rats that are studied in home range studies, the estimated sizes of rat home ranges in different rat demographic groups are inconclusive.
Read more about this topic: Black Rat
Other articles related to "home range, range":
... about 50% of its time in only 11% of its home range ... tamarin spends much of its time foraging and traveling within its home range to the next foraging site ... lion tamarin site in Lemos Maia, it was shown that groups had an average home range of only 63 hectares, but they ranged in a patch of forest that was almost entirely discontinuous from the neighboring forests ...
... Local convex hull (LoCoH) is a method for estimating the size the home range of an animal or a group of animals (e.g ... that represents the probabilities of finding an animal within a given area of its home range at any point in time or, more generally, at points in time for which the ... of LoCoH utilization distribution constructions, the home range can be taken as the outer boundary of the distribution (i.e ...
... Individuals may have a large range, occupying hollow logs in cooler months and wandering across areas up to 20 ha (49 acres) ... Males tend to have a larger range ...
... for food scarcity with a larger than average home range ... Males have a home range of about 4.92 hectares, while females have a home range of about 2.50 hectares ... Females tend to remain in a home range that is close to, or includes their place of birth ...
Home range is the area where an animal lives and travels in. It is closely related to, but not identical with, the concept of "territory".
The concept that can be traced back to a publication in 1943 by W. H. Burt, who constructed maps delineating the spatial extent or outside boundary of an animal's movement during the course of its everyday activities. Associated with the concept of a home range is the concept of a utilization distribution, which takes the form of a two dimensional probability density function that represents the probability of finding an animal in a defined area within its home range. The home range of an individual animal is typically constructed from a set of location points that have been collected over a period of time identifying the position in space of an individual at many points in time. Such data are now collected automatically using collars placed on individuals that transmit through satellites or using mobile cellphone technology and global positioning systems (GPS) technology, at regular intervals.
The simplest way to draw the boundaries of a home range from a set of location data is to construct the smallest possible convex polygon around the data. This approach is referred to as the minimum convex polygon (MCP) method which is still widely employed, but has many drawbacks including often overestimating the size of home ranges.
The best known methods for constructing utilization distributions are the so-called bivariate Gaussian or normal distribution kernel density methods. This group of methods is part of a more general group of parametric kernel methods that employ distributions other than the normal distribution as the kernel elements associated with each point in the set of location data.
Recently, the kernel approach to constructing utilization distributions was extended to include a number of nonparametric methods such as the Burgman and Fox's alpha-hull method. and Getz and Wilmers local convex hull (LoCoh) method. This latter method has now been extended from a purely fixed-point LoCoH method to fixed radius and adaptive point/radius LoCoH methods.
Although, currently, more software is available to implement parametric than nonparametric methods (because the latter approach is newer), the cited papers by Getz et al. demonstrate that LoCoH methods generally provide more accurate estimates of home range sizes and have better convergence properties as sample size increases than parametric kernel methods.
Home range estimation methods that have been developed since 2005 include:
- Brownian Bridge
- Line-based Kernel
Computer packages for using parametric and nonparametric kernel methods are available online.
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