The bitboard method for holding a board game appears to have been invented in the mid-1950s, by Arthur Samuel and was used in his checkers program. The method was published in 1959 as "Some Studies in Machine Learning Using the Game of Checkers" in the IBM Journal of Research and Development.
For the more complicated game of chess, it appears the method was independently rediscovered later by the Kaissa team in the Soviet Union in the late 1960s, although not publicly documented, and again by the authors of the U.S. Northwestern University program "Chess" in the early 1970s, and documented in 1977 in "Chess Skill in Man and Machine".
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Famous quotes containing the word history:
“And now this is the way in which the history of your former life has reached my ears! As he said this he held out in his hand the fatal letter.”
—Anthony Trollope (18151882)
“The foregoing generations beheld God and nature face to face; we, through their eyes. Why should not we also enjoy an original relation to the universe? Why should not we have a poetry and philosophy of insight and not of tradition, and a religion by revelation to us, and not the history of theirs?”
—Ralph Waldo Emerson (18031882)
“The history is always the same the product is always different and the history interests more than the product. More, that is, more. Yes. But if the product was not different the history which is the same would not be more interesting.”
—Gertrude Stein (18741946)