Bengali Language Movement

The Bengali Language Movement, also known as the Language Movement (Bengali: ভাষা আন্দোলন; Bhasha Andolon), was a political movement in former East Bengal (today Bangladesh) advocating the recognition of the Bengali language as an official language of the then-Dominion of Pakistan in order to allow its use in government affairs, the continuation of its use as a medium of education, its use in media, currency and stamps, and to maintain its writing in the Bengali script.

When the Dominion of Pakistan was formed by the partition of India in 1947, it was composed of various ethnic and linguistic groups, with the geographically non-contiguous East Bengal province (that was renamed in 1956 as East Pakistan) having a mainly Bengali population. In 1948, the Government of the Dominion of Pakistan ordained Urdu as the sole national language, sparking extensive protests among the Bengali-speaking majority of East Bengal. Facing rising sectarian tensions and mass discontent with the new law, the government outlawed public meetings and rallies. The students of the University of Dhaka and other political activists defied the law and organised a protest on 21 February 1952. The movement reached its climax when police killed student demonstrators on that day. The deaths provoked widespread civil unrest led by the Awami Muslim League, later renamed the Awami League. After years of conflict, the central government relented and granted official status to the Bengali language in 1956. In 1999, UNESCO declared 21 February as International Mother Language Day, in tribute to the Language Movement and the ethno-linguistic rights of people around the world.

The Language Movement catalysed the assertion of Bengali national identity in East Bengal and later East Pakistan, and became a forerunner to Bengali nationalist movements, including the 6-Point Movement and subsequently the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971. In Bangladesh, 21 February is observed as Language Movement Day, a national holiday. The Shaheed Minar monument was constructed near Dhaka Medical College in memory of the movement and its victims.

Read more about Bengali Language MovementBackground, Early Stages of The Movement, Events of 1952, Events After 1952, Legacy, Criticism

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Shorbodolio Kendrio Rashtrobhasha Kormi Porishod
... The Shorbodolio Kendrio Rashtrobhasha Kormi Porishod (All-Parties Central Language Action Committee) was the leading political organisation in the Bengali Language Movement of East Bengal ... The Government of Pakistan's proposal of writing the Bangla language in Arabic script was vehemently opposed at the meeting ... Bengali Language Movement History and events Bengali nationalism Bengali Language Movement Partition of India 1947 Partition of Bengal East Pakistan Bengal ...
Linguistic Diversity - Language Endangerment
... Language endangerment occurs when a language is at risk of falling out of use as its speakers die out or shift to speaking another language ... Language loss occurs when the language has no more native speakers, and becomes a dead language ... If eventually no one speaks the language at all, it becomes an extinct language ...
Abdus Salam (Bengali Language Movement Demonstrator) - Legacy
... Bengali Language Movement History and events Bengali nationalism Bengali Language Movement Partition of India 1947 Partition of Bengal East Pakistan Bengal Constituent Assembly of ... Ekushey Book Fair Shaheed Minar Ekushey Padak Language Movement Day International Mother Language Day Moder Gorob Artistic depictions of the Bengali Language ...
Bengali Language Movement - Criticism
... Although the Language Movement is considered to have laid the foundations for ethnic nationalism in many of the Bengalis of East Bengal and later East Pakistan, it also heightened the cultural animosity between the ... In the western wing of the Dominion of Pakistan, the movement was seen as a sectional uprising against Pakistani national interests ... of Pakistan considered Urdu a product of Indian Islamic culture, while they saw Bengali as a part of "Hinduized" Bengali culture ...
Tamaddun Majlish - Involvement in The Bengali Language Movement
... role played by this pro-Islamic organization made it clear to the Bengali-speaking Muslim population of East Pakistan that the demand to adopt Bengali as one of the state ... Tamuddun Majlish), made a strong case for introducing Bengali as the only language of instruction, offices and courts of East Bengal ... They also forcefully articulated the demand for Bengali to be one of the State languages of Pakistan ...

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