The Arctic ( /ˈɑrktɪk/ or /ˈɑrtɪk/) is a polar region located at the northern-most part of the Earth. The Arctic consists of the Arctic Ocean and parts of Canada, Russia, Denmark (Greenland), Norway, the United States (Alaska), Sweden, Finland, and Iceland. The Arctic region consists of a vast, ice-covered ocean, surrounded by treeless permafrost. The area can be defined as north of the Arctic Circle (66° 33'N), the approximate limit of the midnight sun and the polar night. Alternatively, it can be defined as the region where the average temperature for the warmest month (July) is below 10 °C (50 °F); the northernmost tree line roughly follows the isotherm at the boundary of this region.

Socially and politically, the Arctic region includes the northern territories of the eight Arctic states, although by natural science definitions much of this territory is considered subarctic. The Arctic region is a unique area among Earth's ecosystems. The cultures in the region and the Arctic indigenous peoples have adapted to its cold and extreme conditions. In recent years the extent of the sea ice has declined. Life in the Arctic includes organisms living in the ice, zooplankton and phytoplankton, fish and marine mammals, birds, land animals, plants and human societies.

Read more about ArcticEtymology, Climate, Natural Resources, Paleo-history, Indigenous Population, International Cooperation and Politics, Climate Change, Arctic Waters, Arctic Lands

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Arctic Research Office
... The Arctic Research Office (ARO) a division of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) run under the auspices of the Office of Oceanic and ... focal point for NOAA's research in the Arctic, Bering Sea, North Pacific and North Atlantic regions ... one million USD to support an Arctic Research Initiative within NOAA ...
Arctic Lands
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Iceland Topics - A
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... distribution about the North Pole in the Arctic Ocean and subarctic seas of the Northern Hemisphere ... laptevi, which lives in the Laptev Sea of the Arctic Ocean ... and they are considered to be a "keystone species" in the Arctic marine regions ...

Famous quotes containing the word arctic:

    Nature confounds her summer distinctions at this season. The heavens seem to be nearer the earth. The elements are less reserved and distinct. Water turns to ice, rain to snow. The day is but a Scandinavian night. The winter is an arctic summer.
    Henry David Thoreau (1817–1862)

    Does the first wild-goose care
    whether the others follow or not?
    I don’t think so he is so happy to be off
    he knows where he is going
    so we must be drawn or we must fly,
    like the snow-geese of the Arctic circle.
    Hilda Doolittle (1886–1961)

    The chisel work of an enormous Glacier
    That braced his feet against the Arctic Pole.
    Robert Frost (1874–1963)