Wrought iron is an iron alloy with a very low carbon content in contrast to steel, and has fibrous inclusions, known as slag. This is what gives it a "grain" resembling wood, which is visible when it is etched or bent to the point of failure. Wrought iron is tough, malleable, ductile and easily welded. Historically, it was known as "commercially pure iron"; however, it no longer qualifies because current standards for commercially pure iron require a carbon content of less than 0.008 wt%.
Before the development of effective methods of steelmaking and the availability of large quantities of steel, wrought iron was the most common form of malleable iron. A modest amount of wrought iron was used as a raw material for manufacturing of steel, which was mainly used to produce swords, cutlery, chisels, axes and other edge tools as well as springs and files. Demand for wrought iron reached its peak in the 1860s with the adaptation of ironclad warships and railways, but then declined as mild steel became more available.
Before they came to be made of mild steel, items produced from wrought iron included rivets, nails, wire, chains, rails, railway couplings, water and steam pipes, nuts, bolts, horseshoes, handrails, straps for timber roof trusses, and ornamental ironwork.
Wrought iron is no longer produced on a commercial scale. Many products described as wrought iron, such as guard rails, garden furniture and gates, are made of mild steel. They retain that description because in the past they were wrought (worked) by hand.
Other articles related to "wrought iron, iron, wrought":
... Wrought iron furniture has a long history, dating back to Roman times ... There are thirteenth century wrought iron gates in Westminster Abbey in London, and wrought iron furniture appeared to reach its peak popularity (in Britain) in the seventeenth ... However, cast iron and cheaper steel caused a gradual decline in wrought iron manufacture, with the last wrought ironworks in Britain closing in 1974 ...
... addition to accidental lumps of low-carbon wrought iron produced by excessive injected air in Chinese cupola furnaces, the ancient Chinese also created wrought iron by ... existed in the previous Warring States Period (403–221 BC), due to the fact that there are wrought iron items from China dating to that period and there is no ... The fining process involved liquifying cast iron in a fining hearth and removing carbon from the molten cast iron through oxidation ...
... The Moseley Wrought Iron Arch Bridge, also known as the Upper Pacific Mills Bridge, is a historic, riveted, wrought iron bridge now located in North Andover, Massachusetts ... the National Register of Historic Places as the oldest iron bridge in Massachusetts, and one of the oldest such bridges in the United States ... The bridge was completed in 1864 as Moseley Truss Bridge built by the Moseley Iron Building Works of Boston, to connect the Pacific Mills with Canal Street in Lawrence ...
... The ships' armor was made of wrought iron and backed with teak ... The armored belt was composed of four alternating layers of wrought iron and teak ... The outer iron layer was 203 mm (8.0 in) thick amidships, backed with 200 mm (7.9 in) of teak ...
... None of the boats used on the canal has survived completely, but a wrought iron rudder found in the tunnel in 1976 is on display at Morwellham Quay Museum and recent archaeological survey ... boats as being 30 feet (9.1 m) in length, 5 feet (1.5 m) in width, and made of rivetted iron, while an earlier description from 1826 gives the width as 4 feet 6 inches (1.37 m) wide by 2 feet 6 ... These iron barges were first referred to in 1811, when one was launched on the canal on Easter Monday ...
Famous quotes containing the words iron and/or wrought:
“Industrial mana sentient reciprocating engine having a fluctuating output, coupled to an iron wheel revolving with uniform velocity. And then we wonder why this should be the golden age of revolution and mental derangement.”
—Aldous Huxley (18941963)
“From what Paradisal
Too costly for cost?
Who hammered you, wrought you,
From argentine vapor?”
—Francis Thompson (18591907)