Variable Valve Timing

In internal combustion engines, Variable valve timing (VVT), also known as Variable valve actuation (VVA), is any mechanism or method that can alter the shape or timing of a valve lift event within an internal combustion engine. VVT allows the lift, duration, or timing (in various combinations) of the intake and/or exhaust valves to be changed while the engine is in operation. Two-stroke engines use a power valve system to get similar results to VVT. There are many ways in which this can be achieved, ranging from mechanical devices to electro-hydraulic and camless systems.

The valves within an internal combustion engine are used to control the flow of the intake and exhaust gases into and out of the combustion chamber. The timing, duration and lift of these valve events has a significant impact on engine performance. In a standard engine, the valve events are fixed, so performance at different loads and speeds is always a compromise between driveability (power and torque), fuel economy and emissions. An engine equipped with a variable valve actuation system is freed from this constraint, allowing performance to be improved over the engine operating range.

Strictly speaking, the history of the search for a method of variable valve opening duration goes back to the age of steam engines when the valve opening duration was referred to as “steam cut-off”. Almost all steam engines had some form of variable cut-off, the mechanism for which is the valve gear such as for example Stephenson valve gear or Walschaerts valve gear. That they are not in wide use is a reflection that they are all lacking in some aspect of variable valve actuation.

The desirability of being able to vary the valve opening duration to match an engine’s rotational speed first became apparent in the 1920s when maximum allowable RPM limits were generally starting to rise. Until about this time an engine’s idle RPM and its operating RPM were very similar, meaning that there was little need for variable valve duration.

It was in the 1920s that the first patents for variable duration valve opening started appearing – for example United States patent U.S. Patent 1,527,456. A surprising fact is that from these first patents until the appearance of the helical camshaft there has never been a really practical and useful variable duration camshaft.

Read more about Variable Valve Timing:  Overview, Implementations

Other articles related to "variable valve timing, valves, timing, valve timing, valve, variable":

Continuous Variable Valve Timing - Implementations
... Alfa Romeo - Double continuous variable valve timing ... CVVT is used on inlet and exhaust valves ... BMW/PSA Peugeot Citroën - Continuous variable valve timing (CVVT) Chrysler - dual Variable Valve Timing (dual VVT) ...
Continuous Variable Valve Timing
... Continuous variable valve timing offers a unique ability to have independent control of the intake and exhaust valves in an internal combustion engine ... For any engine load criteria, the timing of intake and exhaust can be independently programmed ... The main variations of valve timing are Late intake valve closing, Early Intake valve closing, Early Intake valve opening and early exhaust valve ...
Continuous Variable Valve Timing - Drawbacks - Cam Phasing Variable Valve Timing
... This system varies the valve timing by shifting the phase angle of the camshafts ... at high engine speeds, the intake camshaft will be rotated to advance the intake valve timing ... It is important to note that cam-phasing variable valve timing cannot vary the duration of valve opening ...
Variable Valve Timing - Implementations
... tappet can be engineered to rapidly bleed-down for variable reduction of valve opening and duration ... Alfa Romeo Twin Cam — latest versions are equipped with Variable Valve Timing technology ... Twin Spark — is equipped with Variable Valve Timing technology ...
Economy Cars Today
... improvements such as electronic engine management, adoption of four valves per cylinder, variable valve timing, direct injection of petrol/Gasoline and diesel, hybrid ... Fiat 'Multiair' system, is an electro-hydraulic development of variable valve timing that allows the engine management computer to control valve timing, improving engine efficiency, giving better torque, power ... As an alternative to manual synchromesh gearboxes, automatic continuously variable transmission (CVT) gearboxes are optional on some economy cars, such as Audi, Honda, and the MINI ONE and MINI Cooper ...

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