The Transylvanian Saxons (German: Siebenbürger Sachsen; Hungarian: Erdélyi szászok; Romanian: Saşi) are a people of German ethnicity who settled in Transylvania (German: Siebenbürgen) from the 12th century onwards.
The colonization of Transylvania by Germans was begun by King Géza II of Hungary (1141–1162). For decades, the main task of the German settlers was to defend the southeastern border of the Kingdom of Hungary. The colonization continued until the end of the 13th century. Although the colonists came mostly from the western Holy Roman Empire and generally spoke Franconian dialects, they were collectively known as Saxons because of Germans working for the Hungarian chancellery. For much of their history, these Saxons held a privileged status with the Hungarian nobles and Szeklers of Transylvania.
After 1918, when following the Treaty of Trianon Transylvania became part of Romania, Transylvanian Saxons, together with other German-speaking groups in newly enlarged Romania (Banat Swabians, Sathmar Swabians, Bessarabia Germans, Dobrudja Germans, Bukovina Germans) became part of the German minority in Romania. The Transylvanian Saxon population has decreased since World War II. Transylvanian Saxons started leaving Transylvania during and after WWII, settling first in Austria, then especially in Germany. The process of emigration continued during Communist rule in Romania, and the great majority of Transylvanian Saxons now live in Germany. A sizeable Transylvanian Saxon population also resides today in the United States, notably in Idaho, Ohio and Colorado and in Southern Ontario, Canada. Very few still live in Romania, where at the last official census around 60,000 Germans were registered, the number including also Banat Swabians and Sathmar Swabians.
Read more about Transylvanian Saxons: Medieval Settlements (Ostsiedlung), Fortification of The Towns, Privileged Class, Loss of Elite Standing, World War II and Afterwards, 19th and 20th Century Population Figures
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... The Red Army played a crucial role in the expulsion of Transylvanian Saxons from Romania that was initiated in January 1945 ... the Soviet command, the Rădescu government ordered the forced transportation by train of Transylvanian Saxons to the Soviet Union ... of ethnic origin, and noted the absence of a legal basis for the deportation of the Transylvanian Saxons ...
... redrawl and evacuate his booty." Báthory ordered his army to prepare for battle his 3,000 Transylvanian Saxons, supported by a second line of Transylvanian Wallachians ... arrive any minute, gave the order to attack." The Transylvanian Saxons opened the attack, but were routed the Transylvanian Wallachians followed their fate, with ... Turks died in the battle, whereas Báthory lost 8,000 Hungarians and some 2,000 Transylvanian Saxons and Transylvanian Wallachians ...