Total internal reflection is an optical phenomenon that happens when a ray of light strikes a medium boundary at an angle larger than a particular critical angle with respect to the normal to the surface. If the refractive index is lower on the other side of the boundary and the incident angle is greater than the critical angle, no light can pass through and all of the light is reflected. The critical angle is the angle of incidence above the total internal incidence occurs.
When a light beam crosses a boundary between materials with different kinds of refractive indices, the light beam will be partially refracted at the boundary surface, and partially reflected. However, if the angle of incidence is greater (i.e. the ray is closer to being parallel to the boundary) than the critical angle – the angle of incidence at which light is refracted such that it travels along the boundary – then the light will stop crossing the boundary altogether and instead be totally reflected back internally. This can only occur where light travels from a medium with a higher to one with a lower refractive index . For example, it will occur when passing from glass to air, but not when passing from air to glass.
Read more about Total Internal Reflection: Optical Description, Critical Angle, Derivation of Evanescent Wave, Frustrated Total Internal Reflection, Phase Shift Upon Total Internal Reflection, Applications, Examples in Everyday Life
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