Staphylococcus Aureus - Infection Control

Infection Control

Spread of S. aureus (including MRSA) generally is through human-to-human contact, although recently some veterinarians have discovered the infection can be spread through pets, with environmental contamination thought to play a relatively unimportant part. Emphasis on basic hand washing techniques are, therefore, effective in preventing its transmission. The use of disposable aprons and gloves by staff reduces skin-to-skin contact and, therefore, further reduces the risk of transmission. Please refer to the article on infection control for further details.

Recently, there have been myriad reported cases of S. aureus in hospitals across America. The pathogen has had facilitated transportation in medical facilities mainly because of insufficient healthcare worker hygiene. S. aureus is an incredibly hardy bacterium, as was shown in a study where it survived on polyester for just under three months; polyester is the main material used in hospital privacy curtains.

The bacteria are transported on the hands of healthcare workers, who may pick them up from a seemingly healthy patient carrying a benign or commensal strain of S. aureus, and then pass it on to the next patient being treated. Introduction of the bacteria into the bloodstream can lead to various complications, including, but not limited to, endocarditis, meningitis, and, if it is widespread, sepsis.

Ethanol has proven to be an effective topical sanitizer against MRSA. Quaternary ammonium can be used in conjunction with ethanol to increase the duration of the sanitizing action. The prevention of nosocomial infections involves routine and terminal cleaning. Nonflammable alcohol vapor in CO2 NAV-CO2 systems have an advantage, as they do not attack metals or plastics used in medical environments, and do not contribute to antibacterial resistance.

An important and previously unrecognized means of community-associated MRSA colonization and transmission is during sexual contact.

Staff or patients who are found to carry resistant strains of S. aureus may be required to undergo "eradication therapy", which may include antiseptic washes and shampoos (such as chlorhexidine) and application of topical antibiotic ointments (such as mupirocin or neomycin) to the anterior nares of the nose.

The nonprotein amino acid L-homoarginine is a growth inhibitor of S. aureus as well as Candida albicans. It is assumed to be an antimetabolite of arginine.

Biological control might be a new possible way to control Staphylococcus aureus in body surfaces. Colonization of body surfaces (especially in the nose) by Staphylococcus epidermidis(inhibitory strain JK16) impairs the establishment of S. aureus.

A 2011 study points to this new possible way to control S.aureus. This study was performed from observations of the nasal microbial flora of a diverse group of people. It was discovered that there are two different strains of S. epidermidis, one that inhibits biofilm formation by S. aureus, S. epidermidis strain JK16 (inhibitory type), and one that does not (non-inhibitory type) S. epidermidis strain JK11. In this study they observed that there were some patients that were not affected by Staphylococcus aureus; this was because these patients had S. aureus together with S. epidermis (inhibitory type), in their nasal microbial flora. This is due to an amensalistic relationship between these microorganisms, the inhibitory strain of S. epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus.

These findings open the way to a biological control therapy to help in the treatment of S. aureus infections which are becoming a growing threat due to the rise of resistance to conventional antibiotic treatments.

Read more about this topic:  Staphylococcus Aureus

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