The South African Republic (Dutch: Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek, or ZAR), often informally known as the Transvaal Republic, was an independent Boer-ruled country in Southern Africa during the second half of the 19th century. Not to be confused with the present-day Republic of South Africa, it occupied the area later known as the South African province of Transvaal. The ZAR was established in 1852, and was independent from 1856 to 1877, then again from the end of the First Boer War in 1881, in which the Boers regained their independence from the British Empire, until 1900.
In 1900 the ZAR was annexed by the United Kingdom during the Second Boer War although the official surrender of the territory only took place at the end of the war, on 31 May 1902. In 1910 it became the Transvaal Province of the Union of South Africa.
The first president of the South African Republic was Marthinus Wessel Pretorius, elected in 1857, son of the famous Voortrekker leader Andries Pretorius, who commanded the Boers to victory at the Battle of Blood River.
The capital was established at Pretoria (founded 1855), though for a brief period Potchefstroom served as the seat of government. The parliament, the Volksraad, had 24 members.
... this constituency for fourteen years, until the outbreak of the South African War in 1899 ... positions regarding the discussions between the Orange Free State and the South African Republic about closer co-operation between the two Boer states ... network of the Orange Free State and the direct connections with the Cape Colony and the South African Republic ...
... To Vereeniging, the South African Republic and the Orange Free State sent thirty delegates each to meet the British ... Francis William Reitz, tabled a compromise, ending the war, allowing the two republics limited sovereignty, and calling for slimmed down delegations to meet in ... the United Kingdom, the Orange Free State, and the South African Republic ...
... The South African Postal Union Convention was signed during 1897, and came into effect on 1 January 1898 ... postal orders between the Cape of Good Hope, Natal, the Orange Free State, and the South African Republic ... to the issuing British colony or Boer republics ...
... The former national flag of South Africa (from 1927–1994) had, as part of a feature contained within its central white bar, a horizontal flag of the Transvaal Republic (ZAR) ...
... In 1795 revolutionary France invaded and occupied the Dutch Republic, and established a puppet allied-state there, known as the Batavian Republic ... All the former colonies of the Dutch Republic came under the control of the Batavian Republic, who were allied to France, Britain’s enemy in the French Revolutionary Wars ... for control of the seas and access to India and the Far East, Britain attacked the Batavian Republic's outpost at the Cape of Good Hope in the Battle of Muizenberg ...
Famous quotes containing the words republic, south and/or african:
“While the Republic has already acquired a history world-wide, America is still unsettled and unexplored. Like the English in New Holland, we live only on the shores of a continent even yet, and hardly know where the rivers come from which float our navy.”
—Henry David Thoreau (18171862)
“Returned this day, the south wind searches,
And finds young pines and budding birches;
But finds not the budding man.”
—Ralph Waldo Emerson (18031882)
“Kitsch ... is one of the major categories of the modern object. Knick-knacks, rustic odds-and-ends, souvenirs, lampshades, and African masks: the kitsch-object is collectively this whole plethora of trashy, sham or faked objects, this whole museum of junk which proliferates everywhere.... Kitsch is the equivalent to the cliché in discourse.”
—Jean Baudrillard (b. 1929)