Soliton

In mathematics and physics, a soliton is a self-reinforcing solitary wave (a wave packet or pulse) that maintains its shape while it travels at constant speed. Solitons are caused by a cancellation of nonlinear and dispersive effects in the medium. (The term "dispersive effects" refers to a property of certain systems where the speed of the waves varies according to frequency.) Solitons arise as the solutions of a widespread class of weakly nonlinear dispersive partial differential equations describing physical systems. The soliton phenomenon was first described by John Scott Russell (1808–1882) who observed a solitary wave in the Union Canal in Scotland. He reproduced the phenomenon in a wave tank and named it the "Wave of Translation".

Other articles related to "soliton, solitons":

Soliton - Bions
... The bound state of two solitons is known as a bion, or in systems where the bound state periodically oscillates, a "breather." In field theory BIon usually refers to the solution of the Born–Infel ... Gibbons in order to distinguish this solution from the conventional soliton, understood as a regular, finite-energy (and usually stable) solution of a ... feature can be important, which motivated the introduction of a special name for this class of solitons ...
Soliton (optics) - Dark Solitons
... In the analysis of both types of solitons we have assumed particular conditions about the medium in spatial solitons, that means the self-phase modulation causes self-focusing in temporal solitons, or ... For higher order solitons we can use the following closed form expression It is a soliton, in the sense that it propagates without changing its shape, but it is not made by a normal pulse rather, it ... Those solitons can actually be generated introducing short dark pulses in much longer standard pulses ...
Soliton Distribution
... A soliton distribution is a type of discrete probability distribution that arises in the theory of erasure correcting codes ... A paper by Luby introduced two forms of such distributions, the ideal soliton distribution and the robust soliton distribution ...
Q-ball
... physics, Q-ball refers to a type of non-topological soliton ... A soliton is a localized field configuration that is stable—it cannot spread out and dissipate ... In the case of a non-topological soliton, the stability is guaranteed by a conserved charge the soliton has lower energy per unit charge than any other configuration ...
Soliton (optics) - Stability of Solitons
... We have described what optical solitons are and, using mathematics, we have seen that, if we want to create them, we have to create a field with a ... and solving them numerically, it is possible to show that mono-dimensional solitons are stable ... They are often referred as (1 + 1) D solitons, meaning that they are limited in one dimension (x or t, as we have seen) and propagate in another one (z) ...