Roman roads were a vital part of the development of the Roman state, from about 500 BC through the expansion during the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire. Roman roads enabled the Romans to move armies and trade goods and to communicate. The Roman road system spanned more than 400,000 km of roads, including over 80,500 km of paved roads. When Rome reached the height of its power, no fewer than 29 great military highways radiated from the city. Hills were cut through and deep ravines filled in. At one point, the Roman Empire was divided into 113 provinces traversed by 372 great road links. In Gaul alone, no less than 21,000 km of road are said to have been improved, and in Britain at least 4,000 km. There were footpaths on each side of the road.
The Romans became adept at constructing roads, which they called viae. They were intended for carrying material from one location to another. It was permitted to walk or pass and drive cattle, vehicles, or traffic of any description along the path. The viae differed from the many other smaller or rougher roads, bridle-paths, drifts, and tracks. To make the roads the Romans used stones, broken stones mixed with cement and sand, cement mixed with broken tiles, curving stones—so the water could drain, and on the top they used tightly packed paving stones.
The Roman road networks were important both for the stability of the empire and for its expansion. The legions made good time on them, and some are still used millennia later. In later antiquity, these roads played an important part in Roman military reverses by offering avenues of invasion to the barbarians.
... With the advent of the Roman Empire, there was a need for armies to be able to travel quickly from one area to another, and the roads that existed were often ... To solve this problem, the Romans built great roads ... These 'Roman roads' used deep roadbeds of crushed stone as an underlying layer to ensure that they kept dry, as the water would flow out from the crushed stone, instead of ...
... Africa Main article Roman roads in Africa Main road from Sala Colonia to Carthage to Alexandria ... Mauretania Tingitana from Tingis southward (see Roman roads in Morocco) Albania / Republic of Macedonia / Greece / Turkey Via Egnatia (146 BC) connecting Dyrrhachium (o ... Limes Germanicus and Via Belgica Middle East Via Maris Via Traiana Nova Petra Roman Road 1st century Petra, Jordan Romania Trajan's bridge and Iron Gates road ...
... to have been the meeting point of two Roman roads, Cade's Road, which ran all the way from the Humber, via York to Newcastle and the Wrekendyke which ... It has even been conjectured that a Roman fort existed on the local golf course at Wrekenton but no evidence for this has been found ...
... See also Roman roads in Britain Roads built in the first phase of Roman occupation (43–68 AD) connected London with the ports used in the invasion (Chic ... As Roman influence expanded, so did the network, until around 180 AD when the known network was complete ... Few Roman roads extended into Scotland due to their inability to subjugate the local population ...
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—Denise Levertov (b. 1923)
“It is a dogma of the Roman Church that the existence of God can be proved by natural reason. Now this dogma would make it impossible for me to be a Roman Catholic. If I thought of God as another being like myself, outside myself, only infinitely more powerful, then I would regard it as my duty to defy him.”
—Ludwig Wittgenstein (18891951)