**Real gases** – as opposed to a perfect or ideal gas – exhibit properties that cannot be explained entirely using the ideal gas law. To understand the behaviour of real gases, the following must be taken into account:

- compressibility effects;
- variable specific heat capacity;
- van der Waals forces;
- non-equilibrium thermodynamic effects;
- issues with molecular dissociation and elementary reactions with variable composition.

For most applications, such a detailed analysis is unnecessary, and the ideal gas approximation can be used with reasonable accuracy. On the other hand, real-gas models have to be used near the condensation point of gases, near critical points, at very high pressures, and in other less usual cases.

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### Famous quotes containing the words gas and/or real:

“Man moves in all modes, by legs of horses, by wings of winds, by steam, by *gas* of balloon, by electricity, and stands on tiptoe threatening to hunt the eagle in his own element.”

—Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803–1882)

“No; we have been as usual asking the wrong question. It does not matter a hoot what the mockingbird on the chimney is singing.... The *real* and proper question is: Why is it beautiful?”

—Annie Dillard (b. 1945)