Rayleigh Flow - Applications

Applications

The Rayleigh flow model has many analytical uses, most notably involving aircraft engines. For instance, the combustion chambers inside turbojet engines usually have a constant area and the fuel mass addition is negligible. These properties make the Rayleigh flow model applicable for heat addition to the flow through combustion, assuming the heat addition does not result in dissociation of the air-fuel mixture. Producing a shock wave inside the combustion chamber of an engine due to thermal choking is very undesirable due to the decrease in mass flow rate and thrust. Therefore, the Rayleigh flow model is critical for an initial design of the duct geometry and combustion temperature for an engine.

The Rayleigh flow model is also used extensively with the Fanno flow model. These two models intersect at points on the enthalpy-entropy and Mach number-entropy diagrams, which is meaningful for many applications. However, the entropy values for each model are not equal at the sonic state. The change in entropy is 0 at M = 1 for each model, but the previous statement means the change in entropy from the same arbitrary point to the sonic point is different for the Fanno and Rayleigh flow models. If initial values of si and Mi are defined, a new equation for dimensionless entropy versus Mach number can be defined for each model. These equations are shown below for Fanno and Rayleigh flow, respectively. begin{align} Delta S_F &= frac{s - s_i}{c_p} = lnleft \ Delta S_R &= frac{s - s_i}{c_p} = lnleft end{align}

Figure 3 shows the Rayleigh and Fanno lines intersecting with each other for initial conditions of si = 0 and Mi = 3.0 The intersection points are calculated by equating the new dimensionless entropy equations with each other, resulting in the relation below.

Interestingly, the intersection points occur at the given initial Mach number and its post-normal shock value. For Figure 3, these values are M = 3.0 and 0.4752, which can be found the normal shock tables listed in most compressible flow textbooks. A given flow with a constant duct area can switch between the Rayleigh and Fanno models at these points.