Neurotrophic Factors

Neurotrophic factors are a family of proteins that are responsible for the growth and survival of developing neurons and the maintenance of mature neurons. Recent research has shown that neurotrophic factors promote the initial growth and development of neurons in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system and that they are capable of regrowing damaged neurons in test tubes and animal models . Neurotrophic factors are often released by the target tissue in order to guide the growth of developing axons. Most neurotrophic factors belong to one of three families: (1) neurotrophins, (2) glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor family ligands (GFLs), and (3) neuropoietic cytokines . Each family has its own distinct signaling family though the cellular responses elicited often do overlap .

Currently, neurotrophic factors are being intensely studied for use in bioartificial nerve conduits because they are necessary in vivo for directing axon growth and regeneration. In studies, neurotrophic factors are normally used in conjunction with other techniques such as biological and physical cues created by the addition of cells and specific topographies. The neurotrophic factors may or may not be immobilized to the scaffold structure, though immobilization is preferred because it allows for the creation of permanent, controllable gradients. In some cases, such as neural drug delivery systems, they are loosely immobilized such that they can be selectively released at specified times and in specified amounts.

Other articles related to "factors, neurotrophic factors, neurotrophic, factor":

Alpha Motor Neuron - Development
... Under the influence of Shh and other factors, some neurons of the basal plate differentiate into α-MNs ... extrafusal muscle fibers via axon guidance, a process regulated in part by neurotrophic factors released by target muscle fibers ... Neurotrophic factors also ensure that each muscle fiber is innervated by the appropriate number of α-MNs ...
Development Of Nervous System - Neurotrophic Factors
... The survival of neurons is regulated by survival factors, called trophic factors ... The neurotrophic hypothesis was formulated by Victor Hamburger and Rita Levi Montalcini based on studies of the developing nervous system ... According to the neurotrophic hypothesis, growing axons compete for limiting amounts of target-derived trophic factors and axons that neurons that fail to receive sufficient trophic support die by apoptosis ...
Peripheral Nerve Injury - Role of Neurotrophic Factors
... Neurotrophic factors are those that promote survival and growth of neurons ... A trophic factor can be described as a factor that is associated with providing nourishment to allow for growth ... Neurotrophic factors act through retrograde transport in neurons, in which they are taken up by the growth cone of the injured neuron and transported back to ...

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