MVA85A (modified vaccinia Ankara 85A) is a new-generation vaccine against tuberculosis developed by researchers at Oxford University. This vaccine produces higher levels of long-lasting cellular immunity when used together with the old TB vaccine called BCG. Phase I clinical trials have been completed and phase II clinical trials are currently underway in South Africa. As of late 2010, those trials, while promising, were not expected to be finished until late 2015, with efficacy trials running in parallel from 2009 to 2019.