Mapudungun Alphabet - Consonants


Mapudungun has the following consonant system.

Phoneme Unified Alphabet Ragileo Nhewenh Azumchefi NICE place of articulation type of articulation
/p/ p p p p p bilabial plosive
/t̟/ * td * t' interdental plosive
/t/ t t t t t alveolar plosive
/k/ k k k k k velar plosive
/tʃ/ ch c ch ch ch postalveolar affricate
/tʂ/ tr x tr tx tr retroflex affricate
/f/ f f f f f labiodental or bilabial fricative
/θ/ d z sd z d interdental fricative
/s/ s s * s s alveolar fricative
/ʃ/ sh * sh sh sh postalveolar fricative
/m/ m m m m m bilabial nasal
/n̟/ h nd nh n' interdental nasal
/n/ n n n n n alveolar nasal
/ɲ/ ñ ñ nh, ñ ñ ñ palatal nasal
/ŋ/ ng g g g ng velar nasal
/w/ w w w w w labiovelar approximant
/j/ y y j y y palatal approximant
/ɣ/ or /ɰ/ (**) g q q q g velar approximant
/ɻ/ r r r r r retroflex approximant
/l̟/ b ld lh l' interdental lateral
/l/ l l l l l alveolar lateral
/ʎ/ ll j lh ll ll palatal lateral

(*) Raguileo doesn't distinguish between /s/ and /ʃ/, and between /t̪/ and /t/. Also, Raguileo aims to use only one grapheme for each phoneme (no digraphs), so he uses some letters from the alphabet in a non-standard way.
(**) Corresponds to /ɨ/ in the same way that /j/ corresponds to /i/ and /w/ corresponds to /u/.

Read more about this topic:  Mapudungun Alphabet

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