Loanword

A loanword (or loan word) is a word borrowed from a donor language and incorporated into a recipient language. By contrast, a calque or loan translation is a related concept where the meaning or idiom is borrowed rather than the lexical item itself. The word loanword is itself a calque of the German Lehnwort, while calque is a loanword from French. The terms borrow and loanword, although traditional, conflict with the ordinary meaning of those words because nothing is returned to the donor languages. However, note that this metaphor is not isolated to the concept of loanwords, but also found in the idiom "to borrow an idea." An additional issue with the term loanword is that it implies that the loaning is limited to one single word as opposed to phrases such as déjà vu, an English loanword from French. While this phrase may be used as one lexical item by English speakers, that is to say, an English speaker would not say only déjà to convey the meaning associated with the full term déjà vu, in the donor language (French), speakers would be aware of the phrase consisting of two words. For simplicity, adopt/adoption or adapt/adaption are used by many linguists, either in parallel to, or in preference to, these words. Some researchers also use the term lexical borrowing.

Read more about Loanword:  Loanwords Entering A Language, Linguistic Classification, In English, Cultural Aspects, Reborrowing

Other articles related to "loanword, loanwords":

Expressive Loan
... An expressive loan is a loanword incorporated into the expressive system of the borrowing language, making it resemble native words or onomatopoeia ... Expressive loanwords are hard to identify, and by definition, they follow the common phonetic sound change patterns poorly ... Likewise, there is a continuum between "pure" loanwords and "expressive" loanwords ...
List Of Spanish Words Of Basque/Iberian Origin - Basque
... Recent loanword as it is a Basque neologism from the 19th century ... Recent loanword ... batúa (modern loanword from Basque) becerro "yearling calf", fr OSp bezerro "bullock" (cf ...
List Of Replaced Loanwords In Turkish - Lists of Replaced Loanwords - Loanwords of Other Origin
... Loanword Turkish equivalent Meaning in English Original languages Original spelling Remarks akut iveğen acute(ly) German akut angarya * yüklenti drudgery, forced labor Greek αγγαρεία The Turkish word is still ... kalıtım (bilimi) ("the science of heredity") genetics German Genetik Both the loanword and the Turkish word are used ... kompüter bilgisayar computer English The loanword is now unused ...
Calque
... "Calque" itself is a loanword from a French noun, and derives from the verb "calquer" ("to trace", "to copy") ... "Loanword" is a calque of the German "Lehnwort", just as "loan translation" is of "Lehnübersetzung" ... is a calque sometimes requires more documentation than does an untranslated loanword, since in some cases a similar phrase might have arisen in both languages independently ...