Lake Constance (German: Bodensee) is a lake on the Rhine at the northern foot of the Alps, and consists of three bodies of water: the Obersee ("upper lake"), the Untersee ("lower lake"), and a connecting stretch of the Rhine, called the Seerhein.
The lake is situated in Germany, Switzerland and Austria near the Alps. Specifically, its shorelines lie in the German federal states of Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg, the Austrian federal-state of Vorarlberg, and the Swiss cantons of Thurgau and St. Gallen. The Rhine flows into it from the south following the Austro-Swiss frontier.
Lake Constance was first mentioned by the Roman geographer Pomponius Mela about 43AD. He noted that the Rhine flows through two lakes, and gave them the Latin names Lacus Venetus (Obersee) and Lacus Acronius (Untersee). Pliny the Elder used the name Lacus Brigantinus, after the Roman city of Brigantium (today Bregenz). The lake is also colloquially known as the Swabian Sea (das schwäbische Meer).
The freshwater lake sits at 395 m (1,296 ft) above sea level and is Central Europe's third largest, after Lake Balaton and Lake Geneva. It is 63 km (39 mi) long, and at its widest point, nearly 14 km (8.7 mi). It covers approximately 571 km2 (220 sq mi) of total area. The greatest depth is 252 metres (827 ft) in the middle of the eastern part (Obersee). Its volume is approximately 1e10 m3 (1.3×1010 cu yd). The lake has four parts: the main section, called Obersee, 476 km2 (184 sq mi); the north section, Überlinger See, 61 km2 (24 sq mi); the west section, Untersee, 63 km2 (24 sq mi); and the northwest section, the Zeller See and Gnadensee. The regulated Rhine flows into the lake in the southeast, through the Obersee, the city of Konstanz and the Untersee and flows out near Stein am Rhein. Lake Constance provides fresh water to many cities in south Germany.
Lake Constance was formed by the Rhine Glacier during the ice age and is a zungenbecken lake. The Rhine, the Bregenzer Ache, and the Dornbirner Ache carry sediments from the Alps to the lake, thus gradually decreasing the depth of the lake in the southeast.
The lake was frozen in the years 1077 (?), 1326 (partial), 1378 (partial), 1435, 1465 (partial), 1477 (partial), 1491 (partial?), 1517 (partial), 1571 (partial), 1573, 1600 (partial), 1684, 1695, 1709 (partial), 1795, 1830, 1880 (partial), and 1963.
Approximately 1,000 tonnes (1,100 short tons) of fish were caught by 150 professional fishermen in 2001 which was below the previous ten year average of 1,200 tonnes (1,300 short tons) per year. The Lake Constance trout (Salmo trutta) was almost extinct in the 1980s due to pollution, but thanks to protective measures has made a significant return.
The lake itself is an important drinking water source for southwestern Germany, called Bodensee-Wasserversorgung ("Lake Constance Water Supply").
Car ferries link Romanshorn, Switzerland to Friedrichshafen, and Konstanz to Meersburg.
Other articles related to "lake constance, lake":
... Lake Constance assures that the climate in Arbon is mild, both summer and winter ... Arbon has a storm warning system for boats on Lake Constance and works closely with neighboring towns ... The prevailing winds make Lake Constance a favorite for sailing and wind surfing ...
... As an effect of human work it empties into Lake Constance on Austrian territory and not on the border that follows its old natural river bed ... It emerges from Lake Constance, flows generally westward, as the Hochrhein, passes the Rhine Falls, and is joined by the river Aar ... The Rhine roughly forms the boundary with Germany from Lake Constance with the exceptions of the canton of Schaffhausen and a part of the canton of Zürich, until it turns north at the so-called Rhine ...
... From the entry of the Rhine, on the southern or left shore On the Upper Lake (Obersee) Altenrhein, St ... Germany) On the Rhine Gottlieben On the Lower Lake (Untersee) Ermatingen Mannenbach Berlingen Steckborn Mammern Eschenz Stein am Rhein, Schaffhausen ...
... of the abbot's land in the Rhine valley and around Lake Constance, which angered the abbot ... as the Bund ob dem See (alliance over the sea, which refers to the nearby Lake Constance) ... The creation of the Bund shook the foundation of Austrian power in the Lake Constance region ...
... and Posterior Rhine at Reichenau and its mouth at Lake Constance ... a broad plain, measuring some 10 km across at its lower end along the southern shores of Lake Constance ... From the point of the Rhine's emergence from Lake Constance, it is known as High Rhine ...
Famous quotes containing the word lake:
“His education lay like a film of white oil on the black lake of his barbarian consciousness. For this reason, the things he said were hardly interesting at all. Only what he was.”
—D.H. (David Herbert)