Jurassic

The Jurassic is a geologic period and system that extends from 201.3± 0.6 Ma (million years ago) to 145± 4 Ma; that is, from the end of the Triassic to the beginning of the Cretaceous. The Jurassic constitutes the middle period of the Mesozoic Era, also known as the Age of Reptiles. The start of the period is marked by the major Triassic–Jurassic extinction event. However, the end of the period did not witness any major extinction event. The Jurassic is named after the Jura Mountains within the European Alps, where limestone strata from the period was first identified.

By the beginning of the Jurassic, the supercontinent Pangaea had begun rifting into two landmasses, Laurasia to the north and Gondwana to the south. This created more coastlines and shifted the continental climate from dry to humid, and many of the arid deserts of the Triassic were replaced by lush rainforests. Dinosaurs dominated the land, and reached their peak in this period as they diversified into a wide variety of groups. The first birds also appeared during the Jurassic, having evolved from a branch of theropod dinosaurs. The oceans were inhabited by marine reptiles such as ichthyosaurs and plesiosaurs, while pterosaurs were the dominant flying vertebrates. Mammals also existed during this time; however, overshadowed by the dinosaurs, they constituted only a small and relatively insignificant part of the biosphere.

Read more about Jurassic:  Etymology, Divisions, Paleogeography and Tectonics, Flora

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... Ammonitina comprises a diverse suborder of ammonite cephalopods that lived during the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods of the Mesozoic Era ... Lower Jurassic superfamlies include the Psilocerataceae, Eocerocerataceae, and Hildoceratoidea, which is in part Middle Jurassic ... Superfamilies from the Middle and Upper Jurassic include the Stephanoceratacea, Perispinctaceae, and Haploceratoidea the Perispinctaceae and Haploceratacea ...
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... true ancestors are thought to be older than Archaeopteryx, perhaps Early Jurassic or even older ... remains of maniraptoran dinosaurs actually had been known from Jurassic deposits in China, North America, and Europe for many years ... For example, the femur of a tiny maniraptoran from the Late Jurassic of Colorado was reported by Padian and Jensen in 1989 while teeth of dromaeosaurids and troodontids are known from Jurassic England ...
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