James II

James II and VII (14 October 1633O.S. – 16 September 1701) was King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685. He was the last Roman Catholic monarch to reign over the Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland. Members of Britain's political and religious elite increasingly opposed him for being pro-French and pro-Catholic, and for his designs on becoming an absolute monarch. When he produced a Catholic heir, the tension exploded, and leading nobles called on William III of Orange (his son-in-law and nephew) to land an invasion army from the Netherlands, which he did. James fled England (and thus was held to have abdicated) in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. He was replaced by William of Orange, who became king as William III, ruling jointly with his wife (James's daughter) Mary II. Thus William and Mary, both Protestants, became joint rulers in 1689. James made one serious attempt to recover his crowns, when he landed in Ireland in 1689 but, after the defeat of the Jacobite forces by the Williamite forces at the Battle of the Boyne in July 1690, James returned to France. He lived out the rest of his life as a pretender at a court sponsored by his cousin and ally, King Louis XIV.

James is best known for his belief in the Divine Right of Kings and his attempts to create religious liberty for English Roman Catholics and Protestant nonconformists against the wishes of the English Parliament. However, he also continued the persecution of the Presbyterian Covenanters in Scotland. Parliament, opposed to the growth of absolutism that was occurring in other European countries, as well as to the loss of legal supremacy for the Church of England, saw their opposition as a way to preserve what they regarded as traditional English liberties. This tension made James's four-year reign a struggle for supremacy between the English Parliament and the Crown, resulting in his deposition, the passage of the English Bill of Rights, and the Hanoverian succession.

Read more about James IIGlorious Revolution, Succession, Historiography, In Popular Culture, Issue, Ancestors

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Alexander Lindsay, 4th Earl Of Crawford
... For some time he was in arms against King James II as part of the Douglas rebellion. 1452, William Douglas, 8th Earl of Douglas was personally killed at Stirling Castle by James II for refusing to dissolve his league with Alexander ... The Tiger Earl was defeated at the Battle of Brechin on 18 May, and he submitted to James II in 1452 ...
Simat De La Valldigna - History
... James I conquered these lands, but his grandson James II gave them to the Cistercian order ... When James II came back from an expedition against the kingdoms of Murcia and Almeria at the end of the 13th century, they came through the vall d'Alfàndec (ancient name of the Valldigna valley) ... On 15 March 1297 James II of Aragon donated the vall d'Alfàndec (Alfàndec valley) to the Cistercian order in order to found a monastery devoted to the Virgin Mary ...
James II, Count Of Urgell
... James II (in Catalan Jaume II d'Urgell or Jaume el Dissortat "James the Unfortunate", in Spanish Jayme II de Urgel) (1380 – 1 June 1433) was the Count of ... Born at Balaguer to Peter II of Urgell and Margaret of Montferrat, he inherited the county of Urgell from his father in 1408 ... to the Aragonese Crown, the king appointed James governor-general, an act interpreted by James as implying his heirdom ...
Sir Walter Clarges, 1st Baronet - Opposing James II
... in 1685 after the Duke ascended the throne as James II, Clarges made his mark in Parliament as an opponent of the King's religious policies ... Starting out as a conciliator, James II progressively moved to increase the involvement of the Roman Catholic Church in official life Clarges drew attention ...

Famous quotes containing the word james:

    It was a real treat when he’d read me Daisy Miller out loud. But we’d reached the point in our relationship when, in a straight choice between him and Henry James, I’d have taken Henry James any day even if Henry James were dead and not much of a one for the girls when living, either.
    Angela Carter (1940–1992)