Iron Cross

The Iron Cross (German: Eisernes Kreuz) is a cross symbol typically in black with a white or silver outline that originated after 1219 when the Kingdom of Jerusalem granted the Teutonic Order the right to combine the Teutonic Black Cross placed above a silver Cross of Jerusalem.

The military decoration called the Iron Cross which existed in the Kingdom of Prussia, and later in the German Empire and Third Reich, was established by King Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia and first awarded on 10 March 1813 in Breslau (now Wrocław in Poland), during the Napoleonic Wars. The recommissioned Iron Cross was also awarded during the Franco-Prussian War, World War I, and World War II. The Iron Cross was normally a military decoration only, though there were instances of it being awarded to civilians for performing military functions. Two examples of this were civilian test pilots Hanna Reitsch and Melitta Schenk Gräfin von Stauffenberg, who were awarded the Iron Cross 1st Class and 2nd Class respectively for their actions as pilots during World War II.

The Iron Cross was used as the symbol of the German Army from 1871 to March/April 1918, when it was replaced by a simpler Greek cross. In 1956, the Iron Cross resumed its German military usage, as it became the symbol of the Bundeswehr, the modern German armed forces. The traditional design is black and this design is used on armored vehicles and aircraft. A newer design in blue and silver is used as the emblem in other contexts.

Read more about Iron Cross:  Design, Early Awards, Second World War, Side Features of The Iron Cross and Entitlements, In Post-war Pop Culture

Other articles related to "iron cross, cross":

Max-Günther Schrank - Summary of His Military Career - Notable Decorations
... rmelband Kreta (1942) Iron Cross Second (1918) and First (1919) Classes Clasp to the Iron Cross Second (1939) and First (1939) Classes Cross of Honor (1934) Knight's Cross of ...
Sigfrid Henrici - Awards
... Iron Cross (1914) 2nd Class (14 September 1914) 1st Class (24 December 1915) Knight's Cross of the Royal House Order of Hohenzollern with Swords (12 February 1918) Cross of Honor Sudetenland ...
Siegfried Brosow
... World War II who was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross ... Storm Leader/Second Lieutenatnt) Brosow was awarded the Iron Cross 2nd class for bravery and the Iron Cross 1st class, during the first assault on Moscow and was promoted to Obersturmführer (Senior ...
Iron Cross - In Post-war Pop Culture
... The Iron Cross has been popular with many bikers, hot rodders, skinheads and others, using German iconic militaria to promote a tough-guy image, or as a symbol of ... In the 1960s, the Iron Cross was adopted by American surfers, who started wearing medals plundered by their fathers ... Cal Look, Volksrod and other Volkswagen enthusiasts often use the Iron Cross as a symbol that reflects the car's country of origin ...
Siegfried Scheibe
... Division Nederland and a posthumous recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross, which was awarded to recognize extreme battlefield bravery or successful military ... He was awarded the Iron Cross II class in November 1939 for his actions during the Polish Campaign ... The Iron Cross I class award followed in August 1940, for the Battle of France ...

Famous quotes containing the words cross and/or iron:

    There is the grand truth about Nathaniel Hawthorne. He says NO! in thunder; but the Devil himself cannot make him say yes. For all men who say yes, lie; and all men who say no,—why, they are in the happy condition of judicious, unincumbered travellers in Europe; they cross the frontiers into Eternity with nothing but a carpet-bag,—that is to say, the Ego. Whereas those yes-gentry, they travel with heaps of baggage, and, damn them! they will never get through the Custom House.
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