# Heat Capacity - Table of Specific Heat Capacities

Table of Specific Heat Capacities

Note that the especially high molar values, as for paraffin, gasoline, water and ammonia, result from calculating specific heats in terms of moles of molecules. If specific heat is expressed per mole of atoms for these substances, none of the constant-volume values exceed, to any large extent, the theoretical Dulong-Petit limit of 25 J/(mol·K) = 3 R per mole of atoms (see the last column of this table). Paraffin, for example, has very large molecules and thus a high heat capacity per mole, but as a substance it does not have remarkable heat capacity in terms of volume, mass, or atom-mol (which is just 1.41 R per mole of atoms, or less than half of most solids, in terms of heat capacity per atom).

In the last column, major departures of solids at standard temperatures from the Dulong-Petit law value of 3R, are usually due to low atomic weight plus high bond strength (as in diamond) causing some vibration modes to have too much energy to be available to store thermal energy at the measured temperature. For gases, departure from 3R per mole of atoms in this table is generally due to two factors: (1) failure of the higher quantum-energy-spaced vibration modes in gas molecules to be excited at room temperature, and (2) loss of potential energy degree of freedom for small gas molecules, simply because most of their atoms are not bonded maximally in space to other atoms, as happens in many solids.

Table of specific heat capacities at 25 °C (298 K) unless otherwise noted Notable minima and maxima are shown in maroon
Substance Phase (mass) specific
heat capacity
cp or cm
J·g−1·K−1
Constant
pressure molar
heat capacity
Cp,m
J·mol−1·K−1
Constant
volume molar
heat capacity
Cv,m
J·mol−1·K−1
Volumetric
heat capacity
Cv
J·cm−3·K−1
Constant vol.
atom-molar
heat capacity
in units of R
Cv,m(atom)
atom-mol−1
Air (Sea level, dry,
0 °C (273.15 K))
gas 1.0035 29.07 20.7643 0.001297 ~ 1.25 R
Air (typical
room conditionsA)
gas 1.012 29.19 20.85 0.00121 ~ 1.25 R
Aluminium solid 0.897 24.2 2.422 2.91 R
Ammonia liquid 4.700 80.08 3.263 3.21 R
Animal tissue
(incl. human)
mixed 3.5 3.7*
Antimony solid 0.207 25.2 1.386 3.03 R
Argon gas 0.5203 20.7862 12.4717 1.50 R
Arsenic solid 0.328 24.6 1.878 2.96 R
Beryllium solid 1.82 16.4 3.367 1.97 R
Bismuth solid 0.123 25.7 1.20 3.09 R
Cadmium solid 0.231 26.02 3.13 R
Carbon dioxide CO2 gas 0.839* 36.94 28.46 1.14 R
Chromium solid 0.449 23.35 2.81 R
Copper solid 0.385 24.47 3.45 2.94 R
Diamond solid 0.5091 6.115 1.782 0.74 R
Ethanol liquid 2.44 112 1.925 1.50 R
Gasoline (octane) liquid 2.22 228 1.64 1.05 R
Glass solid 0.84
Gold solid 0.129 25.42 2.492 3.05 R
Granite solid 0.790 2.17
Graphite solid 0.710 8.53 1.534 1.03 R
Helium gas 5.1932 20.7862 12.4717 1.50 R
Hydrogen gas 14.30 28.82 1.23 R
Hydrogen sulfide H2S gas 1.015* 34.60 1.05 R
Iron solid 0.450 25.1 3.537 3.02 R
Lead solid 0.129 26.4 1.44 3.18 R
Lithium solid 3.58 24.8 1.912 2.98 R
Lithium at 181 °C liquid 4.379 30.33 2.242 3.65 R
Magnesium solid 1.02 24.9 1.773 2.99 R
Mercury liquid 0.1395 27.98 1.888 3.36 R
Methane at 2 °C gas 2.191 35.69 0.66 R
Methanol (298 K) liquid 2.14 68.62 1.38 R
Nitrogen gas 1.040 29.12 20.8 1.25 R
Neon gas 1.0301 20.7862 12.4717 1.50 R
Oxygen gas 0.918 29.38 21.0 1.26 R
Paraffin wax
C25H52
solid 2.5 (ave) 900 2.325 1.41 R
Polyethylene
solid 2.3027
Polyethylene
liquid 2.9308
Silica (fused) solid 0.703 42.2 1.547 1.69 R
Silver solid 0.233 24.9 2.44 2.99 R
Sodium solid 1.230 28.23 3.39 R
Steel solid 0.466
Tin solid 0.227 27.112 3.26 R
Titanium solid 0.523 26.060 3.13 R
Tungsten solid 0.134 24.8 2.58 2.98 R
Uranium solid 0.116 27.7 2.216 3.33 R
Water at 100 °C (steam) gas 2.080 37.47 28.03 1.12 R
Water at 25 °C liquid 4.1813 75.327 74.53 4.1796 3.02 R
Water at 100 °C liquid 4.1813 75.327 74.53 4.2160 3.02 R
Water at −10 °C (ice) solid 2.11 38.09 1.938 1.53 R
Zinc solid 0.387 25.2 2.76 3.03 R
Substance Phase Cp
J/(g·K)
Cp,m
J/(mol·K)
Cv,m
J/(mol·K)
Volumetric
heat capacity
J/(cm3·K)

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