German Revolution Of 1918–1919
The German Revolution (German: Novemberrevolution) was the politically driven civil conflict in Germany at the end of World War I, which resulted in the replacement of Germany's imperial government with a republic. The revolutionary period lasted from November 1918 until the formal establishment of the Weimar Republic in August 1919.
The roots of the revolution lie in the German Empire's fate in the First World War and the social tensions which came to a head shortly thereafter. The first acts of revolution were triggered by the policy of the Supreme Command and its lack of coordination with the Naval Command which, in the face of defeat, nevertheless insisted on engaging in a climactic battle with the British Royal Navy. The Wilhelmshaven mutiny (a sailors' revolt) ensued in the naval ports of Wilhelmshaven and Kiel, and the spirit of rebellion spread across the country and led to the proclamation of a republic on 9 November 1918. Shortly thereafter Emperor Wilhelm II abdicated.
The revolutionaries, inspired by communist ideas, failed to hand power to soviets as the Bolsheviks had in Russia, because the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) leadership refused to work with those who supported the Bolsheviks. Furthermore, fearing an all-out civil war in Germany between the communists and the reactionary conservatives, the SPD did not plan to completely strip the old imperial elites of their power and instead sought to integrate them into the new social democratic system. In this endeavour, SPD leftists sought an alliance with the Supreme Command. The army and Freikorps (nationalist militias) quelled the Spartacist uprising by force. The political fragmentation among the left wing was a significant factor in the failure of the left to seize power.
The revolution ended officially on 11 August 1919, when the Weimar Constitution was adopted.
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... During the German Revolution of 1918–1919, revolutionary councils of soldiers and workers took over the Pomeranian towns (Stralsund on November 9, Stettin ... The revolution was peaceful, no riots are reported ...
... During the Nazi regime, works on the Weimar Republic and the German Revolution published abroad and by emigrants in the 1930s and 1940s could not be read in Germany ... the political situation at the beginning of the revolution was open The moderate socialist and democratic oriented work force indeed had a chance to become the actual social ... After 1945 West German historical research on the Weimar Republic concentrated most of all on its decline ...
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