Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genome using biotechnology. New DNA may be inserted in the host genome by first isolating and copying the genetic material of interest using molecular cloning methods to generate a DNA sequence, or by synthesizing the DNA, and then inserting this construct into the host organism. Genes may be removed, or "knocked out", using a nuclease. Gene targeting is a different technique that uses homologous recombination to change an endogenous gene, and can be used to delete a gene, remove exons, add a gene, or introduce point mutations.
An organism that is generated through genetic engineering is considered to be a genetically modified organism (GMO). The first GMOs were bacteria in 1973; GM mice were generated in 1974. Insulin-producing bacteria were commercialized in 1982 and genetically modified food has been sold since 1994.
Genetic engineering techniques have been applied in numerous fields including research, agriculture, industrial biotechnology, and medicine. Enzymes used in laundry detergent and medicines such as insulin and human growth hormone are now manufactured in GM cells, experimental GM cell lines and GM animals such as mice or zebrafish are being used for research purposes, and genetically modified crops have been commercialized.
This article focuses on history and methods of genetic engineering, and on applications of genetic engineering and of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The article on GMOs focuses on what organisms have been genetically engineered and for what purposes. The two articles cover much of the same ground but with different organizations (sorted by application in this article; sorted by organism in the other). There are separate articles on genetically modified crops," $new_link, "regulation of the release of genetic modified organisms, and controversies.
Other articles related to "genetically, genetic, genetic engineering, genetically modified, modified":
... A genetically engineered plants is generated in a laboratory by altering its genetic makeup ... This is usually done by adding one or more genes to a plant's genome using genetic engineering techniques ... Most genetically modified plants are generated by the biolistic method (particle gun) or by Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation ...
... cite any references or sources When cultivating genetically modified (GM) plants or livestock, it becomes necessary to prevent "genetic pollution" i.e ... their genetic modification from reaching other conventionally hybridized or wild native plant and animal populations by using gene flow mitigation usually through unintentional cross ... biocontainment, SIGMEA, which focuses on the biosafety of genetically modified plants, and Co-Extra, which studies the co-existence of GM and non-GM product chains ...
... automotive 2007 density (745Wh/l) Cobalt-oxide nanowires from genetically modified virus MIT 2006 density, thickness Three-Dimensional (3D) Porous Particles Composed ...
... there are a number of food species for which a genetically modified version is being commercially grown (percent modified in the table below are mostly 2009/2010 data) ... Crop Properties of the genetically modified variety Modification Percent modified in US Percent modified in world Alfalfa Resistance to glyphosate or glufosinate ... bacteria modifications to endogenous starch-producing enzymes unknown unknown Rice Golden Rice genetically modified to contain beta-carotene (a source of vitamin A) Current version of Golden Rice under development ...
Famous quotes containing the words engineering, genetic, genetically and/or modified:
“Women think that an engineer is a man in hip boots building a dam. They dont realize that 95 percent of engineering is done in a nice air-conditioned office.”
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“Granddaddy used to handle snakes in church. Granny drank strychnine. I guess you could say I had a leg up, genetically speaking.”
—Wesley Strick, U.S. screenwriter, and Martin Scorsese. Max Cady (Robert DeNiro)
“The words of a dead man
Are modified in the guts of the living.”
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