Genetic Engineering

Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genome using biotechnology. New DNA may be inserted in the host genome by first isolating and copying the genetic material of interest using molecular cloning methods to generate a DNA sequence, or by synthesizing the DNA, and then inserting this construct into the host organism. Genes may be removed, or "knocked out", using a nuclease. Gene targeting is a different technique that uses homologous recombination to change an endogenous gene, and can be used to delete a gene, remove exons, add a gene, or introduce point mutations.

An organism that is generated through genetic engineering is considered to be a genetically modified organism (GMO). The first GMOs were bacteria in 1973; GM mice were generated in 1974. Insulin-producing bacteria were commercialized in 1982 and genetically modified food has been sold since 1994.

Genetic engineering techniques have been applied in numerous fields including research, agriculture, industrial biotechnology, and medicine. Enzymes used in laundry detergent and medicines such as insulin and human growth hormone are now manufactured in GM cells, experimental GM cell lines and GM animals such as mice or zebrafish are being used for research purposes, and genetically modified crops have been commercialized.

This article focuses on history and methods of genetic engineering, and on applications of genetic engineering and of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The article on GMOs focuses on what organisms have been genetically engineered and for what purposes. The two articles cover much of the same ground but with different organizations (sorted by application in this article; sorted by organism in the other). There are separate articles on genetically modified crops, genetically modified food, regulation of the release of genetic modified organisms, and controversies.

Read more about Genetic EngineeringDefinition, Genetically Modified Organisms, History, Process, Applications, Regulation, Controversy

Other articles related to "genetic engineering, genetic":

Genetic Engineering - Controversy
... Critics have objected to use of genetic engineering per se on several grounds, including ethical concerns, ecological concerns, and economic concerns raised by the fact GM techniques ...
List Of Genetic Engineers
... This is a list of famous genetic engineers ... For more information, see genetic engineering ... and co-founded the first biotechnical company specialising in genetic engineering Genentech Stanley Cohen created the first genetically modified organism Rudolf ...
List Of Minor Recurring Characters In Star Trek: Enterprise - Arik Soong
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... Bowen) - A CTU graduate student in Genetic Engineering who invented Adam, initially hoping to satisfy her heterosexual desire ... She used genetic engineering, eliminating the genes connected to violence and aggression ... Adam (Paul Francis) - A man created by genetic engineering that reaches full maturiy in 33 days and stops aging ...

Famous quotes containing the words engineering and/or genetic:

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