Gǀui has five modal vowels, a e i o u, three nasal vowels, ã ẽ õ, and two pharyngeal vowels, aˤ oˤ. There are diphthongs o͜a and o͜aˤ, but they are allophones of o. Gǀui also has breathy-voice vowels, but they are described as part of the tone system.
Only the five modal vowels a e i o u occur in monomoraic (CV or V) roots, which except for the noun χò 'thing, place, case' are all grammatical morphemes. These are reduced to three nasal vowels ã ẽ õ after nasal consonants, including the glottalized nasal clicks.
The modal vowels and the pharyngeal vowels, aˤ oˤ/o͜aˤ, occur as the first vowel (V1) of bimoraic roots, CVCV, CVV, and CVN, though the modal vowels are reduced to a e i o͜a before a nasal coda, CVN. This o͜a corresponds to o in Gǁana. Pharyngeal oˤ and o͜aˤ are also in complementary distribution: oˤ in CVV words and o͜aˤ in CVCV and CVN words; some speakers use o͜aˤ in CVV roots too, so that their pharyngeal vowels are reduced to aˤ o͜aˤ.
The modal and nasal vowels (but not the pharyngeals) occur as the second vowel (V2) of bimoraic roots, CVCV or CVV, though only modal vowels may follow the medial consonants b ɾ, and only nasal vowels follow the medial consonants m n. Either oral or nasal vowels may follow j w or null (CVV roots). That is, medial m n may be seen as allophones of b ɾ.
The initial consonant (C1) may be any but n ɾ. The medial consonant (C2) may be b ɾ m n j w. N may be m n.
There are other vowel restrictions. V1 is always i in CVCV words when C1 is non-click palatal, for example. (This is because those sounds arose historically from alveolars followed by i, which are still found in Naro.) Uvular(ized) consonants cause vowel lowering. And so on.
Other articles related to "vowels, vowel":
... Vocal sounds are divided into two basic categories-vowels and consonants-with a wide variety of sub-classifications ... voice students spend a great deal of time studying how the voice forms vowels and consonants, and studying the problems that certain consonants or vowels may cause while singing ...
... The Nganasan language includes 10 vowels and about 20 consonant phonemes ... Nganasan vowels Front Central Back Close i, y ɨ u Mid e ə o Open ⁱa ɐ ᵘa Several bisyllabic sequences of vowels are possible -i -y -ɨ -u -ə -ɐ i ...
... abugida" or "alphasyllabary", meaning that consonants are written with letters while vowels are indicated with diacritics (pilla) on those consonants, unlike English where ... Also, when no diacritic is used, an "inherent vowel", either /a/ or /ə/, is understood, depending on the position of the consonant within the word ... The various vowels are written කා kā, කැ kä, කෑ kǟ (after the consonant), කි ki, කී kī (above the consonant), කු ku, කූ k ...
... Romanian has a broad process of alternating between a mid vowel and a "low" vowel /e̯a/ alternates with /e/, /o̯a/ with /o/, and /a/ with /ə/ ... Originally, this was the result of a phonological process wherein mid vowels (Balkan Latin, by this time, had merged the long and short mid vowels) lowered to ... This has resulted in stress alternations, as shown in the examples below, where stressed vowels and diphthongs are highlighted in bold Stressed Unstressed a ...
... j, w/ and the 8 stops, which have nasal allophones such as before nasal vowels ... There are seven vowels, /i e ɛ a ɔ o u/, all of which may be long or nasal, and three tones ... being maximally CVV, where VV is either a long vowel or /i, u/ plus a different oral or nasal vowel Labial Labiodental Alveolar Palatal Velar Labio-velar Glottal Nasal m ...
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